天然橡胶与生化抑制剂联合包膜控释尿素对土壤供氮及冬小麦生长的影响
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1.山东农业大学资源与环境学院;2.山东农业大学农学院

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基金项目:

国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0201705)和山东省农业重大应用技术创新项目(SD2019ZZ021)共同资助


The Effect of Controlled Release of Urea Coated with Natural Rubber and Biochemical Inhibitor on Soil Nitrogen Supply and Winter Wheat Growth
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Resources and Environment Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an;2.Agronomy College, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an

Fund Project:

Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No.2017YFD0201705), the Major Agricultural Application Technology Innovation Projects of Shandong Province of China(No. SD2019ZZ021)

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    摘要:

    通过控制氮素的溶解与转化速率使其与小麦的需求相匹配,可提高施肥效益,实现小麦高产稳产和减轻环境污染。以天然橡胶为包膜材料与生化抑制剂涂层尿素联合包膜,制备了天然橡胶包膜尿素(CRU1)、正丁基硫代磷酰三胺(NBPT)涂层+天然橡胶包膜尿素(CRU2)、3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐(DMPP )涂层+天然橡胶包膜尿素(CRU3)、NBPT+DMPP组合涂层+天然橡胶包膜尿素(CRU4)四种新型控释尿素。采用扫描电镜、25℃静水释放和土壤培养试验探讨了自制双控释尿素的微观结构、控释性能及NBPT和DMPP控制氮素转化效果,并通过田间试验,验证了四种控释尿素对土壤供氮能力及冬小麦生长的影响。结果表明,天然橡胶作为膜材料制备控释肥,成膜性好,剖面养分通道明显。25℃静水条件下,天然橡胶包膜控释肥控释期达60 d。与普通尿素(U)处理相比,各控释肥均能显著降低土壤氨气挥发速率,推后氨挥发峰值天数。与U相比,CRU1、CRU2、CRU3、CRU4在减氮10%条件下依然能显著提高土壤持续供氮能力,提高小麦产量。CRU4在降低冬小麦生育期内土壤脲酶活性、抑制土壤NH4+-N向NO3--N的转化及减少土壤氨挥发等方面较单独添加NBPT和DMPP更优。与U相比,CRU1、CRU2、CRU3、CRU4冬小麦分别增产16.96%、21.46%、17.37%和25.90%。CRU4土壤氮素持续供应能力最强,冬小麦增产幅度最大,这表明将天然橡胶与抑制剂涂层尿素联合包膜制备的双控释尿素既能“控溶”又能“控转”,在氮素减施10%条件下,能够实现小麦高产、稳产。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】The purposes of this research were to (i) reduce or slow down the release and conversion rate of nitrogen, (ii) increase the utilization rate of nitrogen, (iii) increase the yield of wheat, and (iv) reduce environmental pollution.【Method】We applied the coating technology and inhibitor addition technology at the same time to prepare a new type of dual controlled release urea. For preparation, the coating material of the controlled release fertilizer was natural rubber while the inhibitors used were urease inhibitor (NBPT, n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide) and nitrification inhibitor (DMPP, 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate). According to the different inhibitors added, four kinds of new natural rubber coated urea were prepared: uncoated (CRU1), NBPT coating (CRU2), DMPP coating (CRU3), and (NBPT+DMPP) combined coating (CRU4). The microstructure of natural rubber coated urea was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The slow-release characteristics of urea nitrogen were determined using a hydrostatic release test. The effects of NBPT and DMPP in controlling nitrogen conversion were determined by soil culture test. Also, we designed field experiments to verify the effects of the four controlled-release urea on soil nitrogen supply and winter wheat growth. 【Result】Natural rubber was used as a membrane material to prepare controlled-release fertilizers, with good film-forming properties, smooth surface and obvious nutrient channels in the profile. When loaded in still water, the controlled release period of natural rubber coated controlled-release fertilizer reached 60 days. Compared with urea (U) treatment, all controlled-release fertilizers significantly reduced the ammonia volatilization rate in the soil and postponed the peak ammonia volatilization days. Also, CRU1, CRU2, CRU3, and CRU4 significantly increased the continuous nitrogen supply capacity of the soil and increased the yield of wheat under 10% nitrogen reduction relative to U treatment. CRU4 was better than adding NBPT and DMPP alone in reducing soil urease activity during the growth period of winter wheat, inhibiting the conversion of soil NH4+-N to NO3--N, and reducing soil ammonia volatilization. Relative to U treatment, winter wheat production of CRU1, CRU2, CRU3, and CRU4 increased by 16.96%, 21.46%, 17.37% and 25.90%, respectively. 【Conclusion】CRU4 demonstrated the strongest continuous nitrogen supply capacity when applied in soil and the best increase in winter wheat yield. This result indicates that the new controlled-release urea prepared by combining natural rubber and inhibitor-coated urea controlled the dissolution of urea and delayed the urea conversion process. Under the condition of a 10% reduction in nitrogen application rate, the yield of winter wheat can still be significantly increased.

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漆增连,贺明荣,代兴龙,董元杰.天然橡胶与生化抑制剂联合包膜控释尿素对土壤供氮及冬小麦生长的影响[J].土壤学报,2022,59(5). DOI:10.11766/trxb202012010592 QI Zenglian, HE Mingrong, DAI Xinglong, DONG Yuanjie. The Effect of Controlled Release of Urea Coated with Natural Rubber and Biochemical Inhibitor on Soil Nitrogen Supply and Winter Wheat Growth[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(5).

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