the Strategic Priority Research Program of the CAS (XDA28010401), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFD1500801) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (41725004)
为防治黑土退化、保护好利用好黑土地，本研究基于东北黑土区已发表61篇文献543组研究数据，利用Meta分析和随机森林模型等方法，分析黑土地保护性耕作与深耕对作物产量的影响及其驱动因素，耦合东北黑土地区气候、地形和土壤等信息，评价保护性耕作与深耕的适宜性。结果表明：与传统耕作相比，东北黑土地区整体而言保护性耕作增产不明显（1.21%） ，而深耕增产显著（12.3%） ，区域分析表明前者仅在辽河平原显著增产14.6%，而后者在三江、松嫩和辽河平原均增产10%以上。因素分析表明黑土区保护性耕作产量效应主要受多年平均气温（20%）、积温（19%）和干燥指数（16%）的影响，深耕产量效果则受坡度影响最大（14%） ，平坦区域适宜深耕，陡坡耕地适宜保护性耕作。综合上述因子评价区域适宜性程度，东北地区的西南部，包括辽宁省西部、吉林省西部以及内蒙古自治区东部（赤峰市、通辽）等严重风蚀区域实行保护性耕作效果更佳；典型黑土带以及三江平原等湿润、冷凉、低洼区域深耕的效果较好。本研究成果可为保护性耕作与深耕技术在东北黑土区的推广应用提供参考。
[Objective] Black soil of Northeast China suffered serious degradation due to intensive farming in the past decades. To protect Black soil, conservation tillage is encouraged to be applied in this region. However, some studies have reported that this practice may reduce crop yield. Thus, our objective is to evaluate the suitability of conservation tillage and deep tillage in Black soil of Northeast China.[Method] We collected 543 yield comparisons from 61 papers published in international and domestic journals. After synthesis and grouping of required data, we analyzed the impacts of conservation tillage and deep tillage on crop yield and their influencing factors using meta-analysis as well as random-forest methods.[Result] Overall, crop yields were slightly increased under conservation tillage(+1.21%), but significantly enhanced under deep tillage(+12.3%) as compared with traditional rotary tillage. Conservation tillage caused a higher yield only at Liao River Plain(14.6%), whereas deep tillage increased yield by 10% across three plains including Sanjiang, Songnen and Liao River. Under conservation tillage, the yield effect size was most influenced by the mean annual temperature(20% contribution), mean accumulated temperature >10℃(19% contribution) and aridity index(16% contribution). For deep tillage, the most important factor was the topographic slope(14% contribution). Also, conservation tillage increased soil organic C mainly in the top layer and when combined with straw mulching reduced soil temperature remarkably and increased soil moisture. This observation was the main reason for yield reduction under this practice. Deep tillage reduced soil bulk density and penetration resistance significantly, leading to an increase in crop yield. After synthesizing the yield effect size and factor contribution, our results indicated that wind erosion sensitive regions such as western Liaoning and Jilin provinces as well as eastern Inner Mongolia are highly suitable for conservation tillage. On the other hand, the cold, humid, low-lying areas are more suitable for deep tillage, e.g., Sanjiang Plain and the typical Black soil belt.[Conclusion] This study evaluated the suitability of tillage practices in the Black soil of Northeast China based on the effect size of tillage on crop yield. The synthesized results suggest that conservation tillage is more suitable for dry and wind erosion sensitive regions or slopping lands where it can increase crop yield and protect soils as well.
蒋发辉,钱泳其,郭自春,高磊,张中彬,曹振,国佳欣,刘峰,彭新华.基于Meta分析评价东北黑土地保护性耕作与深耕的区域适宜性：以作物产量为例[J].土壤学报,2022,59(4):935-952. DOI:10.11766/trxb202202220070 JIANG Fahui, QIAN Yongqi, GUO Zichun, GAO Lei, ZHANG Zhongbin, CAO Zhen, GUO Jiaxin, LIU Feng, PENG Xinhua. Evaluating the Regional Suitability of Conservation Tillage and Deep Tillage Based on Crop Yield in the Black Soil of Northeast China: A Meta-analysis[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(4):935-952.复制