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宁夏山地土壤的发育规律及系统分类研究
曲潇琳,龙怀玉,曹祥会,谢 平
中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所
摘要:
为全面了解宁夏山地土壤的发育特性及其系统分类归属,基于宁夏土系调查项目挖掘的典型剖面,选取10个发育在宁夏贺兰山山地(剖面编号为3、11、13、14和108)和六盘山山地(剖面编号为73、82、119、120和121)的土壤作为研究对象,结合剖面形态特征和理化性质,尝试对山地土壤的发育特征和系统分类归属进行研究。结果表明:(1)发育在宁夏的10个山地土壤高级单元归属为新成土、雏形土、淋溶土和均腐土等4个土纲,正常新成土、干润雏形土、湿润雏形土、冷凉淋溶土、湿润均腐土等5个亚纲,干旱正常新成土、简育干润雏形土、暗沃干润雏形土、冷凉湿润雏形土、简育冷凉淋溶土、斑纹湿润均腐土等6个土类,石灰干旱正常新成土、普通简育干润雏形土、普通暗沃干润雏形土、暗沃冷凉湿润雏形土、普通简育冷凉淋溶土、斑纹简育湿润均腐土等6个亚类,续分为10个土族,包括粗骨砂质硅质混合型温性—石灰干旱正常新成土,粗骨砂质长石型温性—石灰干旱正常新成土,壤质长石混合型石灰性冷性—普通简育冷凉淋溶土,砂质硅质混合型非酸性冷性—斑纹简育湿润均腐土等,10个供试剖面在土族完全分异,因而续分为10个土系,包括葡萄泉系、一堆系、滚钟口系、六盘山公园系、绿塬腰系等10个土系。(2)海拔对宁夏山地土壤的发育特征有着明显影响,表现为随海拔升高:腐殖质积累过程逐渐明显、土体淋溶过程加剧、土体石灰反应逐渐减弱直至消失;土壤水分条件逐渐改善,处于高海拔位置的山地土壤土体底部有弱氧化还原反应发生,形成铁子和铁锰胶膜;土壤pH逐渐减小,土壤酸碱性发生一定的变化。(3)受成土环境和成土因素的作用,土壤发育规律在诊断特征上的反映为随海拔高度的抬升呈现一定的垂直分异规律,其中诊断表层由淡薄表层演变为暗沃表层;土壤水分状况经干旱/半干润土壤水分状况向湿润土壤水分状况演化;土壤温度状况由温性土壤温度状况变为冷性状况。
关键词:  宁夏山地土壤  地带性  发育特征  诊断依据  系统分类
DOI:10.11766/trxb201802070053
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技基础性工作专项(2014FY110200A07)
Development Rules and Taxonomy of the Soil in Helan and Liupan Mountains of Ningxia Province
QU Xiaolin,LONG Huaiyu,CAO Xianghui and XIE Ping
Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,,Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,,Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】In order to comprehensively understand how the soils in the Helan and Liupan Mountains of Ningxia Province were developed and should be classified in soil taxonomy, a total of 10 soil profiles were selected out of the typical ones dug and prepared during the Soil Series Survey of Ningxia Province, 5 (Profile 3, 11, 13, 14 and 108) in the Helan Mountain and 5 (Profile 73, 82, 119, 120 and 121) in the Liupan Mountain area, for the study. 【Method】Firstly, locations of the 10 soil profiles were defined with the aid of ArcGIS and GPS; the profiles re-prepared for examination with soil-forming environment and profile morphology described and documented; and then soil samples collected from each soil layer of the profiles for analysis of physicochemical properties. 【Result】Based on the morphological characteristics and soil physicochemical properties of the 10 profiles, attempts were made to elucidate soil development features and determine niches in soil taxonomy. Results show that in the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, the 10 soil profiles could tentatively be sorted into the four soil orders, i.e. Primosols, Cambosols, Argosols and Isohumosols, five soil suborders, i.e. Orthic Primosols, Ustic Cambosols, Udic Cambosols, Boric Argosols and Udic Isohumosols, and six soil subgroups, i.e. Calcaric Aridi-Orthic Primosols, Typic Hapli-Ustic Cambosols, Typic Molli-Ustic Cambosols, Mollic Bori-Udic Cambosols, Typic Hapli-Boric Argosols, and Mottlic Hapli-Udic Isohumosols. Further on, they could tentatively be sorted into 10 soil families, i.e. Coarse bone sandysilica mixture mesic-Calcaric Aridi-Orthic Primosols, Coarse bone sandyfeldspar typical mesic-Calcaric Aridi-Orthic Primosols, Sandyfeldspar mixturecalcareous frigid-Mollic Bori-Udic Cambosols, Sandysilica mixture calcareous frigid-Mottlic Hapli-Udic Isohumosols, which are completely separated ones, and still further into 10 soil series, including Putaoquan series, Yidui series, Gunzhongkou series, Liupanshan park series, Lvyuanyao series, etc. 【Conclusion】Altitude is the major factor affecting development characteristics of the soils in the mountains of Ningxia. With rising altitude the soils show apparent humus accumulation processes, intensifying leaching processes through the solums, weakening lime reaction till nil, and improving soil moisture regime. At the bottoms of the solums of the mountain soils high in altitude, weak redox reaction occurs, forming iron and/or iron-manganese colloids and reducing soil pH, thus causing certain changes in soil acidity and alkalinity. Affected by the soil forming environment and factors, soil development rules are reflected in the diagnostic horizons as a certain vertical variation rule along the altitude. The diagnostic surface horizons have their mollic epipedons turned into ochric epipedons, their soil moisture regimes from aridic/ustic into udic, and their soil temperature regimes from mesic into frigid.
Key words:  Mountain soils of Ningxia  Zonality  Developmental characteristics  Diagnostic basis  Chinese Soil Taxonomy