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作物土传真菌病害发生的根际微生物机制研究进展
杨 珍1, 戴传超1, 王兴祥2, 李孝刚2
1.南京师范大学生命科学学院;2.中国科学院南京土壤研究所
摘要:
土传病害是制约我国农业生产可持续发展的重要瓶颈。根际是作物养分高效利用的窗口,是植物-土壤-微生物相互作用的关键微域,也是土传病害发生发展的主要场所。在宏基因组学快速发展的今天,了解根际微生物与土传病害互作关系,有利于从微生物种群、功能代谢和抑病物质等研究找出防控土传病害的有效方法。本文综述了根际微生物与土传真菌病害的发生机制关系,探讨了土传病原真菌致害机理,并提出目前研究的不足和未来研究的重点。目前,我国农业生产中土传真菌病害发生严重,很多是由不同病原菌复合侵染的结果,其致害机理较为复杂。定向优化根际微生物群落结构提升植物根际微生态抗性,是防控土传病害途径之一,应加以重视。现有研究多偏向根际促生微生物,而忽视了根际有害细菌与病害发生和作物生长的关系。今后的研究应系统评估土传真菌病害的发生及危害程度、归类土传真菌病原菌类型、深入研究土传真菌病害发生的根际微生态机理以及研发土传真菌病害综合防控技术。
关键词:  土传真菌病害  根际微生物  微生物多样性  防控技术  作物抗性
DOI:10.11766/trxb201803260058
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200604)和国家自然科学基金项目(41671306)
Advance in Research on Rhizosphere Microbial Mechanisms of Crop Soil-borne Fungal Diseases
YANG Zhen1, DAI Chuanchao1, WANG Xingxiang2, LI Xiaogang2
1.College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University;2.Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Soil-borne diseases have become a major bottleneck restraining sustainable development of the agriculture in China. Rhizosphere is a window displaying how efficiently a crop uses soil nutrients, a key micro-domain of plant-soil-microbe interactions, as well as a major scene where soil-borne diseases develop. Today when metagenomics is developing so rapidly, any knowledge about interactions between rhizosphere microorganisms and soil-borne fungal diseases is conducive to exploration for effective ways to prevent and control soil-borne diseases from the aspects of microbial community, metabolic function, and disease suppressants. With reference to the databases of Scopus, Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, a review is presented in this paper summarizing relationships between soil-borne fungal diseases and rhizosphere microorganisms, discussing pathogenesis of soil-borne disease fungi, and pointing out shortages of the current researches and focal points for future researches. Currently, the incidence of soil-borne fungal diseases is very high in agricultural production of the country, and incidence of most soil-borne fungal diseases is the result of complex infections of a variety of pathogens. Oriented optimization of the structure of rhizospheric microbial communities is an effective way to enhance their antagonism to soil-borne fungal diseases for control of incidence of the diseases. So it is a noteworthy method. So far, quite a number of papers are found in the literature addressing relationships between rhizosphere probiotic microorganisms and health and growth of plants, but few are exploring impacts of harmful bacteria in the rhizosphere on incidence of soil-borne diseases and crop growth. Studies in future should be oriented to systematically assess the incidence and damage of soil-borne fungal diseases, classify soil-borne pathogens by type, explore in depth micro-ecological mechanism of rhizosphere in incidence of soil-borne diseases, and develop a comprehensive technological system for management of soil-borne diseases.
Key words:  Soil-borne fungal diseases  Rhizosphere microorganisms  Microbial diversity  Control technologies  Crop resistance