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不同施硒方式对水稻硒利用效率的影响
张城铭, 周鑫斌
西南大学资源环境学院
摘要:
采用盆栽试验方法,研究土壤施硒和叶面喷硒两种施硒方式(均为硒酸钠形态)对水稻籽粒硒生物强化以及营养品质的影响机制。结果表明:等量施硒条件下,土壤施硒和叶面施硒两种方式均能显著提高水稻地上部和籽粒硒含量,土壤施硒水稻地上部和籽粒硒含量分别为叶面喷硒处理的8.9倍和5.3倍,说明在等量施硒条件下土壤施硒较叶面施硒更能有效提高籽粒硒含量。叶面喷硒处理的籽粒硒分配系数为土壤施硒的2倍,说明硒通过叶片向籽粒转运速率较通过根系到籽粒的转运速率更快。土壤施硒能够显著提高籽粒中镁、硫、铁、锰和锌等矿质营养元素含量。相比对照组,土壤施硒和叶面喷硒的水稻籽粒粗蛋白分别提高8%和4.5%,两种施硒处理下,籽粒中丝氨酸和酪氨酸含量均高于对照组,说明施硒能够提高水稻营养品质,以土壤施硒效果更佳。
关键词:  水稻  土壤施硒  叶面喷施  生物强化  营养品质
DOI:10.11766/trxb201805110096
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31672238)和重庆市基础科学与前沿技术研究(cstc2017jcyjAX0425)资助
Effects of Different Selenium Application Methods on Se Utilization Efficiency of Rice
ZHANG Chengming, ZHOU Xinbin
College of Resource and Environment, Southwest University
Abstract:
【Objective】 Application of Se fertilizer is an important agronomic rice Se biofortification measure, and is usually done in two ways, i.e. foliar spray (FS) and application in soil (SA). However, as affected by the way of Se application, Se absorption and translocation of Se into rice grain varies in mechanism. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the differences between the two Se application methods in effect on Se absorption and translocation and nutritional quality of rice. 【Method】 A pot experiment was conducted to study mechanisms of FS and SA affecting Se biofortification and nutritional quality of rice grains. 【Result】 Results show that the two methods did not vary much in effect on rice growth. The same in Se application rate, the two methods both increased Se content in rice shoot and grain significantly. However, the content of Se in rice shoot and grain was 8.9 and 5.3 times as high in SA as in FS, respectively, which indicates that SA could more effectively increase Se content in rice grain than FS. But the distribution coefficient of Se in grain was 2 times higher in FS than in SA, which demonstrates that the mechanism of transporting Se from leaf into grain was more effective than that from root to grain. However, no significant effect on Se form in rice grains relative to Se application method, which indicates that Se application methods affected only transport, rather than assimilation of Se in rice. SA could significantly increase the contents of magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) in rice grain. Compared with the control (No Se applied), SA and FS was 8% and 4.5% higher in content of crude protein in rice grain, respectively, which shows that Se can improve nutritional quality of rice, and the effect of SA was more significant than that of FS. Meanwhile, Se application can also increase the content of serine (Ser) and tyrosine (Tyr) as compared with CK, and, the effect on Tyr was more significant in SA than that in FS or 1.15 times as higher in the former than in the latter. 【Conclusion】Therefore, considering cost-effectiveness, SA is better than FS in applying selenate, for it improves more significantly Se content and nutritional quality of rice grains.
Key words:  Rice  Soil selenium application into soil  Foliar selenium application  Biofortification  Nutritional quality