Quick Search:       Advanced Search
引用本文:
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   View/Add Comment  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 486次   下载 450 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
黄土高原黑垆土施肥的作物累积产量及土壤肥力贡献
俄胜哲,丁宁平,李利利,袁金华,车宗贤,周海燕,尚来贵
1.甘肃省农业科学院土壤肥料与节水农业研究所;2.平凉市农业科学研究所
摘要:
施肥的作物产量和土壤肥力贡献是评价施肥是否科学的关键参数,为了给黄土高原黑垆土区施肥及农业可持续发展提供科学的决策依据,通过设置在黄土高原黑垆上的长期定位试验系统研究了不同施肥的作物产量和土壤肥力贡献。试验设不施肥(CK)、单施氮肥(N)、氮磷配施(NP)、秸秆与氮磷配施(SNP)、单施有机肥(M)和有机肥与氮磷配施(MNP)6个处理。结果表明,所有处理玉米和小麦累积产量与种植年限显著正相关。MNP、SNP、NP、M 4处理玉米年均产量分别为8 856、7 089、7 226、7 043 kg·hm-2,小麦年均产量分别为4 916、3 747、4 132、3 868 kg·hm-2,均显著高于对照(CK)。SNP、M和MNP处理玉米和小麦产量与NP处理相近或高于NP处理。氮肥、磷肥的作物累积产量贡献量与种植年限分别呈二次凹函数和凸函数关系。氮磷配施(NP)、秸秆还田的作物累积产量贡献量则与种植年限显著正相关,其年均玉米产量贡献量分别为3 408、2 191 kg·hm-2,小麦产量贡献量分别为429、206 kg·hm-2。长期施用有机肥及秸秆还田可显著增加土壤有机质和全氮含量。长期施磷肥土壤有效磷含量显著增加,而长期施用有机肥土壤有效磷和速效钾含量均显著增加。总体而言,黄土高原黑垆土区长期平衡施用化肥、施用有机肥、秸秆与化肥配合施用及有机肥与化肥配合施用均可增加作物产量,提升土壤肥力质量,适宜化肥施用量为N 90 kg·hm-2、P2O5 75 kg·hm-2,秸秆还田可隔年施磷。
关键词:  黑垆土  作物累积产量  土壤肥力  作物产量贡献量  秸秆还田
DOI:10.11766/trxb201804110116
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41661072)和甘肃省农业科学院创新专项(2017GAAS26)资助
Contribution of Fertilization to Accumulative Crop Yield and Soil Fertility in Heilu Soil Region of the Loess Plateau
E Shengzhe1, DING Ningping2, LI Lili2, YUAN Jinhua3, CHE Zongxian3, ZHOU Haiyan2, SHANG Laigui2
1.Institute of Soil, Fertilizer and Water-saving Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.Pingliang Academy of Agricultural Sciences;3.Institute of Soil and Fertilizer and Save water Agriculture, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Contributions of fertilization to crop yield and soil fertility are key parameters in evaluating whether the fertilization practices are reasonable or not. In order to provide some scientific basis for decision-making in fertilizing and developing sustainable agriculture in the Heilu soil region of the Loess Plateau, this paper tried to explore in-depth contribution of fertilization to crop yield and soil fertility in a long-term stationary field experiment in the region, relative to treatment.【Method】The long-term experiment, which has been carried on since 1978, was designed to have six treatments, that is, CK (no fertilizer), N (single chemical fertilizer of N), NP (chemical fertilizers of N and P), SNP (straw and chemical fertilizers of N and P), M (single organic manure) and MNP (organic manure and chemical fertilizers of N and P).【Result】Results show that accumulative yields of wheat and maize were significantly and positively related to the number of years the crops had been cultivated in all the treatments with determination coefficients R2 being all higher than 0.95. The crop of maize and wheat in treatment MNP, SNP, NP and M reached 8 856, 7 089, 7 226, 7 043 kg·hm-2 and 4 916, 3 747, 4 132 and 3 868 kg·hm-2, respectively, in mean annual yield, significantly higher than that in the control (CK). However, among the four treatments, treatments SNP, M and MNP were similar to or higher than treatment NP. The relationships between the contribution of N fertilizer and P fertilizer to accumulative yield and the number of years of cultivation could be well fitted by quadratic concave function and convex function, respectively. In treatments NP and SNP, the contribution was significantly and positively related to the number of years of cultivation, reaching 3 407 and 2 191 kg·hm-2, respectively with maize 429 and 208 kg·hm-2 respectively with wheat, in accumulative yield. Treatments MNP and SNP significantly increased the contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen, while treatments CK and NP slightly increased the content of soil organic matter only, and treatment NP almost had no impact on soil total nitrogen. Treatment NP significantly increased soil Olsen-P content, while treatment MNP significantly increased the content of soil Olsen-P content and the content of available potassium, as well.【Conclusion】All the findings listed above suggest that long-term balanced application of chemical fertilizers, application of organic manure, application of chemical fertilizers coupled with straw returned, and application of chemical fertilizer in combination of organic manure all can increase crop yields and improve soil fertility quality, that the suitable fertilizer application rate should be N 90 kg·hm-2 and P2O5 75 kg·hm-2, and that in fields where straw returning is adopted, P fertilizer could be applied once every two years in the Heilu soil area of the Loess Plateau, China.
Key words:  Heilu soil  Accumulative crop yield  Soil fertility  Contribution to crop yield  Straw returning