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氮肥运筹对潮土冬小麦/夏玉米产量及氮肥利用率的影响
张伟纳1, 刘宇娟1, 董 成1, 谢迎新1, 马冬云1, 赵 旭2, 岳艳军3, 王晨阳1, 郭天财1
1.河南农业大学农学院/国家小麦工程技术研究中心/河南粮食作物协同创新中心;2.土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所);3.河南心连心化肥有限公司
摘要:
为探究适宜于黄淮潮土区的合理氮肥运筹方式,为中国化肥施用量零增长目标提供理论依据和技术支撑,在黄淮潮土农田定位试验地研究了氮肥运筹对冬小麦/夏玉米产量、氮肥利用率及经济效益的影响。试验设置4种氮肥运筹方式:基施控失尿素(T1)、基施普通尿素+追施普通尿素(T2)、基施控失尿素+追施普通尿素(T3)和基施普通尿素+追施控失尿素(T4),各氮肥运筹方式均包含0、80、160和240 kg·hm-2 (以N计,下同)4个施氮水平。结果表明,随施氮量增加,平均单季籽粒产量、周年产值及周年纯效益均表现为先增加后降低趋势,而氮肥利用效率则表现为逐渐降低趋势,其中以160 kg·hm-2 时效果较优。T1处理小麦季籽粒产量、周年产量、周年产值及周年纯经济效益均显著高于其他3个处理。效益分析表明,虽然T1处理在等氮条件下氮肥投入成本相对较高,但其较其他氮肥运筹减少了追肥人工成本,加之该处理产量相对较高,最终该处理纯效益相对较高。结合施氮量与产量曲线方程,在160~173 kg·hm-2 施用范围内一次性基施控失尿素符合当前研究地区农村劳动力缺乏的实际情况,且能保证产量收益。
关键词:  控失尿素  冬小麦  夏玉米  产量  氮肥利用率  经济效益
DOI:10.11766/trxb201805210207
分类号:
基金项目:河南心连心化肥有限公司科研合作项目(Y141240001)、国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300400)和“十二五” 国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD26B00)共同资助
Effect of Nitrogen Application on Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Winter Wheat and Summer Maize in Fluvo-aquic Soil
ZHANG Weina1, LIU Yujuan1, DONG Cheng1, XIE Yingxin1, MA Dongyun1, ZHAO Xu2, YUE Yanjun3, WANG Chenyang1, GUO Tiancai1
1.College of Agronomy, Henan Agricultural University/National Engineering Research Center for Wheat/Collaborative Innovation Center of Henan Grain Crops;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture/Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences;3.Henan Xinlianxin Fertilizer Co. Ltd.
Abstract:
【Objective】 The aim of this study is to explore reasonable nitrogen (N) fertilizer management mode in Fluvo-aquic soil of the Huanghuai Plain, in an attempt to provide certain theoretical and technical basis for accomplishing the goal of zero growth in consumption of chemical fertilizer in China. 【Method】A stationary field experiment was carried out in Fengqiu of Xinxiang, Henan Province, a typical grain crop growing region of China, from October 2015 to September 2017. Then experiment was designed to have four treatments on N fertilizer application, concerning mode, i.e. Treatment T1 (application of loss control urea once as basal), Treatment T2 (application of conventional urea split as basal and topdressing), Treatment T3 (application of loss control urea as basal and conventional urea as topdressing), and Treatment T4 (application of conventional urea as basal and loss control urea as topdressing), and four N application rates for each treatment, i.e. (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg·hm-2). All the treatments, except Treatment T1, received 60% the fertilizer as basal and 40% as topdressing at the jointing stage of winter wheat and at the flaring stage of summer maize.【Result】 Results showed that average grain yield per crop, average annual yield, and average annual economic benefit increased first and then decreased with rising N application rate, but average nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) declined gradually all the way. Among the treatments, Treatment T1 160 kg·hm-2 in rate was the highest in yield and economic benefit. In addition, it was also found that Treatment T1 varied sharply from all the other three (T2, T3 and T4), which did not between themselves, in wheat grain yield, annual yield, annual crop output and annual economic benefit. Furthermore, analysis of the economic benefits of the two years showed that, Treatment T1 was lower in labor cost than all the others, the same in N application rate, because it saved the labor for topdressing, and moreover it was relatively high in yield. So among the treatments, Treatment T1 was relatively higher in, economic benefit. 【Conclusion】 Based on the equation of analog curve between yield and N rate, it is found that the application of loss control urea 160~173 kg·hm-2 in application rate, is relatively suitable to the studied area where rural labor is quite limited, and hence has a vast prospect of extrapolation.
Key words:  Loss control urea  Winter wheat  Summer maize  Yield  Nitrogen use efficiency  Economic benefit