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关键词:  设施栽培  养分施用量  养分平衡  环境效应  退化土壤修复
Scientific and Technological Issues of Nutrient Management under Greenhouse Cultivation in China
Cai Zucong
Nanjing Normal University
Rapid development of greenhouse cultivations has made substantial contributions to meeting the increasing demands of the urban and suburban resident population for vegetable and fruits and to improving farmers’ economic status in China in the past four decades. However, due to inappropriate applications of nutrients, phenomena of soil degradation, like acidification, secondary salinization, nutrient unbalance, and unusual accumulations of N, P, K, and S appear commonly in the soils under greenhouse only a short time after setting up of the greenhouse, seriously affecting sustainable development of the greenhouse farming in China. As scientific researches in this aspect lag far behind the rapid developments of the greenhouse cultivation, nutrient management of greenhouse cultivation encounters a series of scientific and technological problems that call for urgent solution. In the paper, issues, like how to determine appropriate nutrient application rates for greenhouse cultivations, how to judge whether the soil nutrient supply, including macro-, medium-, and micro-elements, is in balance, how to evaluate environmental impacts of the nutrient management in greenhouse cultivation, and how to remove unusual surpluses of nutrients in the greenhouse soils, particularly sulfur, which is usually applied with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, are discussed. It is held that it is essential and urgent to organize forces to launch system researches on the micrometeorology, soil water movement, growth and nutrient uptake of crops, and soil nutrient transformation in greenhouses with high multiple cropping index, particularly mechanisms of the interactions between water, soil, air and crops and their effects on soil nutrient availability, so as to alter the status of scientific researches lagging behind the production practices as quick as possible.
Key words:  Greenhouse cultivation  Nutrient application rates  Nutrient balance  Environmental impacts  Remediation of degraded soils