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引用本文:韦中,沈宗专,杨天杰,王孝芳,李荣,徐阳春,沈其荣.From Suppressive Soil to Rhizosphere Immunity: Towards an Ecosystem Thinking for Soil-borne Pathogen Control[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(4):814-824. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003230038
WEI Zhong,SHEN Zongzhuan,YANG Tianjie,WANG Xiaofang,LI Rong,XU Yangchun,SHEN Qirong.From Suppressive Soil to Rhizosphere Immunity: Towards an Ecosystem Thinking for Soil-borne Pathogen Control[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2021,58(4):814-824. DOI:10.11766/trxb202003230038
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韦中, 沈宗专, 杨天杰, 王孝芳, 李荣, 徐阳春, 沈其荣
江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高技术研究重点实验室, 作物免疫学重点实验室, 国家有机类肥料工程技术研究中心, 江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心, 南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095
关键词:  土传病害  抑病土壤  根际  微生物组  根际免疫
From Suppressive Soil to Rhizosphere Immunity: Towards an Ecosystem Thinking for Soil-borne Pathogen Control
WEI Zhong, SHEN Zongzhuan, YANG Tianjie, WANG Xiaofang, LI Rong, XU Yangchun, SHEN Qirong
Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Soil-borne diseases have become a limiting factor for the development of sustainable intensive agriculture. To coordinate the integrative development of food security, resource efficiency, and ecological health, the construction of a systematic theory and integrated approach is vital for sustainably controlling soil-borne pathogens. As a hotspot where plants and soil closely interact, the rhizosphere inhabits diverse microbiomes. Since the rhizosphere is the only way for soil-borne pathogens to penetrate plant roots, interactions between soil, plants, microorganisms, and plant-pathogens harbored in the rhizosphere could affect pathogen invasion and plant health. Recently, the ability of the rhizosphere to act against the invasion of soil-borne pathogens was defined as "rhizosphere immunity". In this review, we introduced this concept in four important stages:1) the proposal and development of the concept of disease-suppressive soil, 2) the isolation of beneficial microorganisms and their mechanisms in controlling diseases, 3) the deciphering of the structure and function of core microbiomes in disease-suppressive soil, and 4) proposal and development of the concept rhizosphere immunity. Firstly, it was observed that soil microorganisms together with soil abiotic factors determine the ability of soil suppressiveness. Also, previous researchers isolated the key microorganisms and uncovered the underlying mechanisms in disease suppression. Secondly, typical mechanisms including antagonism, nutritional competition, parasitism, predation, induced systemic resistance, and interference of pathogenic signals of pathogenic microorganisms were revealed. In addition to beneficial fungi and bacteria, bacteriophages and protists have also been applied to control pathogens. Despite soil microorganisms playing an important role in disease suppression, application of a single beneficial biocontrol agent into the field usually did not achieve the goal of disease suppression because of its weak colonization ability in the rhizosphere. Therefore, deciphering the composition and functional characteristics of core microorganisms involved in disease suppression has become the hotspot during the past ten years. Thirdly, the core microbial groups and functional genes associated with disease suppression and the approaches to decipher the core microbiomes were identified. Given that the interactions between core microbiomes or with the pathogens are still difficult to verify in natural soil, we reviewed the use of synthetic microbial communities to overcome this limitation. Finally, the background of the concept of "rhizosphere immunity" was introduced. We expounded on the four core functions of rhizosphere immunity:prevention, recognition, response, and homeostasis. Consequently, we used the application of bio-organic fertilizer as an example to demonstrate that rhizosphere immunity could be improved. In the perspective and conclusion section, we appeal with researchers to pay more attention to the belowground micro-ecology, embrace interdisciplinarity, and underly the key mechanisms of rhizosphere immunity. This review could provide a theoretical basis and technical support for improving the health of the soil-plant system and in achieving the aims of sustainable development of modern agriculture and food security.
Key words:  Soil-borne disease  Disease-suppressive soil  Rhizosphere  Microbiome  Rhizosphere immunity