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引用本文:曾宪坤.中国化肥工业的现状和展望[J].土壤学报,1995,32(2):117-125. DOI:
Zeng Xiankun.SITUATION AHD OUTLOOK OF FERTILIZER INDUSTRY IN CHINA[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,1995,32(2):117-125. DOI:
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中国化肥工业的现状和展望
曾宪坤
作者单位
曾宪坤  
摘要:
中国化肥工业取得了长足进展,到1993年全国已建成化肥生产能力2780万吨(纯养分,下同),其中N2087万吨,P2O5673万吨,K2O20万吨,以及配套的磷矿1528万吨(以含P2O530%计),硫铁矿1171万吨(以含S35%计).1949-1993的44年间累计施用化肥38056万吨,其中国产化肥29057万吨,进口化肥8999万吨,国产占76.4%.我国化肥必需有一个更大的发展,估计2000年可能需要4200万吨。应该主要立足国内发展,进口只能是辅助性的。目前我国化肥产地养分水平为26.5%,与国外平均40%相比还有一定差距,希望2000年可以达到32%,因此在化肥品种上应注意发展高浓度品种,但对某些传统品种,如普钙和碳铵,因为它们有一定的优点,也应予以适当注意。此外,我国化肥工业应进一步节能降耗,提高技术装备水平。
关键词:  中国  化肥工业
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SITUATION AHD OUTLOOK OF FERTILIZER INDUSTRY IN CHINA
Zeng Xiankun
Abstract:
Chemical fertilizer Industry of China has already made great progress since 1949. By 1993, the total fertilizer production capacity that has been built was 27.8 Mt, including 20.9 Mt of N, 6.73 Mt of P2O5, and 200 thousand t of K2O. The accumulated ammount of fertilizer nutrients applied into soil during 1949-1993 was 380.6 Mt of which 90 Mt was imported accounting for 23.6% of the total. It is estimated that by the end of the century 42 Mt of fertilizer would be needed to meet the requirement of agricutural production in China. It's supply should mainly rely on China's own Industry. The average nutrients content of fertilizer of China is 26.5% now which is still much lower than the world average (about 40%).So China should pay even greater attention to the production of higher grade fertilizers. A few low grade fertilizers like single superphosphate and NH4HCO3 will still be important sources in Ghina in the near future. Improvement of technigue of fertilizer production in order to lower the energy comsumption and better equipment for the industry are also the main proints needed to. solve.
Key words:  China  Fertilizer industry