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引用本文:张福锁,王激清,张卫峰,崔振岭,马文奇,陈新平,江荣风.中国主要粮食作物肥料利用率现状与提高途径[J].土壤学报,2008,45(5):915-924. DOI:trxb10.11766/200805200517
Zhang Fusuo,Wang Jiqing,Zhang Weifeng,Cui Zhenling,Ma Wenqi,Chen Xinping,Jiang Rongfeng.NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCIES OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS IN CHINA AND MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2008,45(5):915-924. DOI:trxb10.11766/200805200517
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中国主要粮食作物肥料利用率现状与提高途径
张福锁1, 王激清1, 张卫峰1, 崔振岭1, 马文奇2, 陈新平1, 江荣风1
1.农业部植物营养与养分循环重点实验室, 教育部植物-土壤相互作用重点实验室, 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京100193;2.河北农业大学资源与环境学院, 河北保定071001
摘要:
总结了近年来在全国粮食主产区进行的1 333个田间试验结果,分析了目前条件下中国主要粮食作物水稻、小麦和玉米氮磷钾肥的偏生产力、农学效率、肥料利用率和生理利用率等,发现水稻、小麦和玉米的氮肥农学效率分别为10.4 kg kg-1、8.0 kg kg-1和9.8 kg kg-1,氮肥利用率分别为28.3%、28.2%和26.1%,远低于国际水平,与20世纪80年代相比呈下降趋势。造成肥料利用率低的主要原因包括高产农田过量施肥,忽视土壤和环境养分的利用,作物产量潜力未得到充分发挥以及养分损失未能得到有效阻控等。要大幅度提高肥料利用率就必须从植物营养学、土壤学、农学等多学科联合攻关入手,充分利用来自土壤和环境的养分资源,实现根层养分供应与高产作物需求在数量上匹配、时间上同步、空间上一致,同时提高作物产量和养分利用效率,协调作物高产与环境保护。
关键词:  肥料农学效率  氮肥利用率  影响因素  提高途径
DOI:trxb10.11766/200805200517
分类号:
基金项目:农业部“948”项目“土壤养分管理技术引进与建立”(2006-G60)资助
NUTRIENT USE EFFICIENCIES OF MAJOR CEREAL CROPS IN CHINA AND MEASURES FOR IMPROVEMENT
Zhang Fusuo1, Wang Jiqing1, Zhang Weifeng1, Cui Zhenling1, Ma Wenqi2, Chen Xinping1, Jiang Rongfeng1
1.Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, MOA, Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, MOE, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, CAU, Beijing 100193, China;2.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071001, China
Abstract:
Nutrient use efficiency is an important index not only for fertilizer recomm endation on the field scale but also for forecasting fertilizer demand on the regional and national scales,however,exact nutrient use efficiencies of the major cereal crops in China are not well known yet.In this paper,data from 1 333 field experiments were collected and used for analysis and evaluation of partial factor productivity(PFP),agronomic efficiency(AE),apparent recovery efficiency (RE)and physiological efficiency(PE)of these crops.Results show that AEN of rice,wheat and maize was 10.4 kg kg-1,7.99 kg kg-1 and 9.80 kg kg-1,respectively,and REN of rice,wheat and maize was 28.3%,28.2% and 26.1%,respectively,obviouslymuch lower than the world's average,whichis attributed to over-use of chemical fertilize,rignorance of contribution of nutrients from the environment and the soil, failure to bring crop yield potential into full play, and inability to inhibit nutrient losses effectively.
Key words:  Agronomic nutrient efficiency  Nitrogen use efficiency  Influencing factor  Measures of improvement