采用土培试验，以 15 氮(N)标记的硫酸铵和兔粪作为无机肥和有机肥氮源，进行交叉标记，研究了当季小麦种植下有机无机肥料配施处理协同氮素在土壤氮库和作物体内的去向。试验共设5个处理：对照无氮处理(CK)，无机氮肥处理(IF)，有机氮肥处理(OF)，有机无机氮肥配施的两个处理，其中一个进行有机肥料的15N标记(IOF1)，另一个进行无机肥料的15N标记(IOF2)。结果表明：1)无论黏壤土还是黏土，IF和IOF处理下小麦籽粒产量最高，且IF与IOF间没有显著差异；2)IOF处理无机肥料氮的存在显著提高了小麦籽粒和植株对有机肥料15N的吸收，黏壤土和黏土上籽粒增幅分别为57.1%和133.3%，植株增幅分别达220%和100%；3)与IF或OF处理相比较，黏壤土上IOF处理增加了无机肥料15N和有机肥料15N在小麦营养器官的积累，而在黏土上增加了无机肥料15N在营养器官、有机肥料15N在生殖器官籽粒的积累；4)与IF或OF相比较，小麦成熟期IOF处理有机肥料氮和无机肥料氮相互协同促进了对方在土壤微生物氮(MBN)库的固持，土壤—作物系统肥料15N回收率显著增加，相应地，有机肥料15N和无机肥料15N损失率显著降低。可见，与传统IF处理相比较，IOF处理取得与之相当的小麦籽粒产量。IOF处理无机肥料氮和有机肥料氮协同促进了肥料氮在土壤—作物系统的回收。
A pot experiment was conducted, using winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.cv Yangmai 6) growing in a clay loam and a clay, to investigate fate of fertilizer nitrogen (N) in soil N pools and plant parts after combined application of inorganic and organic fertilizers, i.e. ammonium sulphate and rabbit feces.The experiment was designed to have five treatments, namely Treatment IF (inorganic fertilizer N), Treatment OF (organic fertilizer N), Treatment IOF1 (combined application of inorganic fertilizer and organic N fertilizer labelled with 15N), Treatment IOF2 (combined application of organic fertilizer and inorganic N fertilizer labelled with 15N) and Treatment CK (no fertilizer N). Results show 1) the highest winter wheat grain yields were obtained in Treatments IF and IOF, and no significant difference was found between them both in clay loam and clay; 2) Treatment IOF increased plant uptake of organic-fertilizer-sourced 15N, by 57.1% and 133.3%, in grain and by 220% and 100% in whole plant in clay loam and clay, respectively, but decreased its uptake of inorganic-fertilizer-sourced 15N with them decreased by 31% and 17% in grain and by 27% and 15% in plant, in the two soils, respectively, suggesting that in Treatment IOF, inorganic fertilizer N increased the uptake of organic fertilizer 15N whereas organic N fertilizer decreased the uptake of inorganic fertilizer 15N; 3) compared with Treatment IF or OF, in clay loam Treatment IOF increased accumulation of inorganic and organic fertilizer 15N in vegetative organs of the plant growing, while in clay, it increased accumulation of inorganic fertilizer 15N in vegetative organs and organic fertilizer 15N in grains; and 4) compared with Treatment IF or OF, Treatment IOF at the maturity stage of wheat significantly increased fertilizer 15N recovery rate of the soil plant system and the two portions of fertilizers stimulated each other sequestration of 15N of the other in the soil microbial biomass N(MBN) pool, and correspondingly, N loss rate (NLR) of both organic and inorganic fertilizer 15N decreased significantly. It is quite obvious that compared with Treatment IF, the traditional fertilization method, Treatment IOF obtained similar grain yield, but increased fertilizer N recovery rate of the soil plant system.
吴成龙,沈其荣,夏昭远,相恒成,徐阳春.麦-稻轮作系统有机无机肥料配施协同氮素转化的机制研究Ⅰ.小麦季15N去向分析[J].土壤学报,2010,47(5):905-912. DOI:10.11766/trxb200907210324 wuchenglong, Shen qi rong, Xia zhaoyuan, Xiang hengcheng, Xu yangchun. Mechanisms for the increased utilization of fertilizer N under integrated use of inorganic and organic fertilizers in a winter wheat—rice rotation systemⅠ. fate of fertilizer 15N during winter wheat growing stages[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2010,47(5):905-912.复制