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    Insights and Perspectives
    • Re-thinking the Establishment of the Farmland Soil Health Assessment System

      ZHANG Jiangzhou, WANG Guangzhou, LI Yizan, ZHANG Wenju, ZHANG Junling, ZHANG Fusuo

      2024,61(4):879-891, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202310020406


      Healthy soil is the foundation for food security, farmland productivity, and high-quality agricultural development. Currently, soil health assessment has globally become the focus and hotspot of the soil science discipline. The selection of soil health assessment methods and indicators has been systematically summarized. However, there is still a lack of practical suggestions for specific evaluation processes. This paper focuses on analyzing the characteristics of soil health and multifunctionality, the general principles of soil health evaluation, the n+X model for selecting indicators, and the selection and implementation of evaluation methods. We propose the soil health gap and benchmark, the selection of basic and restrictive indicators, as well as the adaptability of indicator selection. In addition, the establishment of a soil health indicator system needs to take into account factors such as soil texture, crop type, land use, and climate conditions. The implementation of soil health technology and paradigm needs to be integrated with relevant policies. In the future, it is necessary to further research the driving mechanisms of soil health and the cultivation of healthy soils. Based on long-term experiments and monitoring networks for farmland quality, the soil health indicator system, threshold, database, and decision support system were established depending on soil texture, crop type, land use, management objectives, and evaluation scales. Combined with relevant policies and regional environmental constraints, a consensus, convention, and action across regions and countries should be formed to promote the implementation of global soil health action and sustainable agricultural development.

    Reviews and Comments
    • Research Progress on Soil Pollution Characteristics in China and Bioaccessibilities of the Priority-controlled Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at Home and Abroad

      CHEN Mengfang, ZHOU Yuan, HAN Lu, LI Yilian, CHEN Xueyan, HOU Shaolin, LI Jing

      2024,61(4):892-915, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202304170151


      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants, which readily accumulate in the soil with significant toxicity. However, PAHs could be strongly adsorbed by the solid phase of soil, the exposure based on the total pollution mass will lead to the overestimation of human health risks. Based on 123 papers published from 2000 to 2020, this study summarized the distribution and composition characteristics of soil concentrations of 16 priority-controlled PAHs (Σ16PAHs) in China, introduced 11 commonly used testing methods and main influencing factors for modelling bioaccessibilities, and summarized the ranges of bioaccessibility coefficients of PAHs. The results showed that the maximum and average concentrations of Σ16PAHs in soil were 23 250 and 1 314.7 μ·kg-1 respectively. In recent years, mainly based on the physiologically-based extraction tests (PBET), the bioaccessibility test methods of PAHs are continuously improved and modified in enriched simulation of digestion processes and adsorbents, while the digestion conditions and soil properties etc. have a great impact on the bioaccessibility results. The average bioaccessibilities of 16 PAHs ranged from 13.2% to 72.4%, among which higher values were identified for chrysene and benzo (b) fluoranthene, contributing significantly to the total Σ16PAHs exposure. This study therefore provided an important theoretical ground for undertaking detailed risk assessment of PAHs.

    • Recent Advances in Hydrogen Metabolism and Its Environmental Bioremediation Function

      XU Yongfeng, TENG Ying, LUO Yongming

      2024,61(4):916-928, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301180025


      Molecular hydrogen is a key intermediary in the metabolic interactions of a wide variety of microorganisms. The activities of hydrogen-producing and hydrogen-consuming microorganisms in the environment determine the global hydrogen cycle, which has a potential driving effect on the biogeochemical cycle of other important elements. Environmental functional microorganisms play an important role in maintaining the balance of ecosystems and eliminating secondary pollution. Therefore, understanding the impact of hydrogen metabolizing (production and consumption of hydrogen) microorganisms on the ecological environment and its role and function in environmental bioremediation has vital significance and practical value for understanding the ecological and environmental effects of hydrogen and its application to bioremediation. This paper systematically analyzed the hydrogen metabolism process and the classification and function of hydrogenase, summarized the various ways of hydrogen production and consumption by microorganisms and their effects on soil ecological environment and bioremediation. The scientific and technical challenges existing in current hydrogen metabolism processes and the application of hydrogenase in environmental bioremediation were summarized. Besides, it was also proposed research ideas and key directions in this field to promote hydrogen as a bioenergy since it has become a promising strategy for environmental pollution remediation.

    • Research Progress of Photochemical Reactive Intermediates Processes and Abiotic Transformation of Pollutants in Paddy Water

      ZENG Yu, ZHANG Mingyang, LI Mabo, CHEN Ning, FANG Guodong, GAO Juan, WANG Yujun, ZHOU Dongmei

      2024,61(4):929-938, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302010037


      Rice is the staple food for about half the world's population and one of the most widely grown crops. Because long periods of flooding are needed during rice planting, paddy water is becoming an important sink of contaminants such as herbicides, pesticides and heavy metal (loid) s (e.g., arsenic). Compared with surface water, the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in paddy water are usually higher, due to the extensive application of nitrogen fertilizers and release of DOM from microbial degradation of soil organic matter. Owing to long-term flooding during rice cultivation, desorption of soil humic substances, reductive dissolution of mineral–OM complexes, and root exudation release a large amount of DOM into paddy water, which can generate reactive intermediates (RIs) such as triple excited organic matter (3CDOM*), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) under sunlight. These RIs usually exhibit high reactivity and play an important role in pollutant transformation and element cycling in paddy fields. In this paper, the generation process and mechanism of RIs in paddy water were reviewed and the type and concentration of RIs in different growth stages of rice were emphasized. Compared with the typical surface water, quantum yields of 3CDOM* and ·OH were comparable, while quantum yields of 1O2 were about 2.4-6.7 times higher than those of surface water. DOM in paddy water with lower molecular weight and humification extent generated more RIs, and nitrite contributed to 23.9%–100% of ·OH generation. DOM with more saturated and less aromatic formulas could produce more 3CDOM* under irradiation, while the polyphenolic components of DOM inhibited the formation of RIs. The effects of different environmental factors on the production of RIs were discussed. The application of straw and lime increased the RI concentrations by up to 16.8 and 11.1 times, respectively, while biochar addition had limited effects on RI generation from paddy water. Furthermore, the solar radiation directly affected the quantum yields of RIs in paddy water, and the radiation intensity showed a linear positive correlation with the concentration of free radicals. The mechanism of abiotic transformation of arsenic and different organic pollutants in paddy water was described and the degradation of contaminants, including As(III), 2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorotoluron, diuron, dimethomorph, and propanil, was significantly accelerated by photoinduced RIs generated in paddy water. Most of previous studies were conducted with stimulation experiments in the laboratory and the underlying mechanisms of RIs generation in paddy water have not been fully elucidated. Future studies should pay more attention to the generation of RIs in the paddy field and link global scale factors such as photoactive material flux, different soil properties and improvement measures, as well as the transformation of pollutants and material circulation to form a systematic understanding. In addition, future studies should not only focus on the degradation of these pollutants themselves, but also on the toxicity and ecological risks of the degradation products of these pollutants. More attention should be paid to the transformation of emerging pollutants, such as new pesticides, antibiotics and microplastics, in the paddy system.

    Research Articles
    • Boundary Identification of Purple Soil Horizon Based on K-means Clustering and Image Segmentation

      YANG Kai, CI En, LIU Bin, CHEN Yangyang, XIE Yu

      2024,61(4):939-951, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302070050


      【Objective】Pedology begins with the observation of soil profile and its morphological characteristics. The division of the soil profile horizon and description of the characteristics of the horizon boundary are the basis of soil investigation. The division of soil horizon in the field requires rich practical experience in pedology and is more subjective, which makes it difficult to form a set of unified division standards. 【Method】In this paper, the purple soil profile image was taken as the research object, and using K-means clustering and image segmentation technology, combined with the color (CIE Lab color space) and texture characteristics (Entropy) of the image, we identified the horizon boundary of the purple soil profile, by comparing with the results of field division. 【Result】The results show that (1) the a and b channels of CIE Lab color space and Entropy texture characteristics can delineate the master horizon (A , B , and C) and bedrock(R)of the profile; the a channel values range from 7-22, the b channel values range from 7-19, and the Entropy values were 4 or 5; the Munsell colors converted by the CEL XYZ system had a certain deviation from the colors visually discerned in the field using colorimetric cards, with a hue range of 10R-2.5Y, a value range of 4-8, and a chroma range of 3-8. (2) The number of soil horizon and the depth of soil horizon identified by clustering were consistent with the results of field identification; the difference between the lower boundary depth of soil horizon identified by clustering identification and those identified in the field was within 3 cm, except for C in profile Z2 and the Ap in profile Z6, where the difference was larger (13 cm and 8 cm, respectively). (3) The topography of the soil horizon identified by clustering was more irregular and the distinctness was more blurred. The clustering algorithm can identify more subtle differences in the soil profile image and reflect the local variation of soil properties in more detail. 【Conclusion】K-means clustering and image segmentation techniques achieved the identification of the horizon boundary of purple soil, and this study provides a scientific reference for the development of an intelligent identification system for soil profiles.

    • Spatial Variation of Black Soil Thickness on Slope Measured by Using Ground Penetrating Radar in Northeast China

      LIU Chang, LIU Qin, ZHANG Qiong, DAN Chenxi, LIU Gang

      2024,61(4):952-963, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212120687


      【Objective】The black soil region of Northeast China is an important commodity grain production base in China. However, long-term high-intensity reclamation and unprotected utilization have led to serious soil erosion and continuous reduction of black soil thickness. In some areas, the low-nutrient loess parent material was exposed, resulting in decreased land productivity, and food production was seriously threatened. However, determination of the distribution of soil thickness on the slope is challenging. The traditional soil thickness measurement methods, including the soil profile method, soil probes, and the drilling method, are inefficient and cannot ensure continuity along the slope. Therefore, this study aims to apply a new method, ground penetrating radar (GPR), to measure the continuous variation of black soil thickness on slopes. 【Method】In this study, the GPR was used to continuously measure the black soil thickness on three slopes (straight, convex, and concave) in northeast China. Firstly, two types of soil, black soil and loess parent material were probed in a wood box to investigate the effect of soil moisture and bulk density on the soil permittivity and to prove the feasibility of GPR determination for black soil thickness. Then, the accuracy of the GPR in measuring black soil thickness was verified in conjunction with field trial excavation profiles and pre-buried iron pipes. 【Result】 (1) The soil permittivity increased and decreased with the increasing bulk density and soil moisture, respectively. The relationships among soil moisture, bulk density, and soil permittivity for both black soil and loess parent material can be represented by logarithmic equations with an accuracy of 95.26%~99.66%. (2) Compared with the actual thickness of the soil profile, the accuracy of GPR measurements for black soil thickness was 87.05%~95.58%. (3) The spatial distribution of black soil thickness differed among the three slopes. However, the overall wave-like variation was observed. Deposition occurred at the slope foot and the black soil thickness was thick, while the black soil thickness at the shoulder and back of the slope was thin where soil erosion was more serious. 【Conclusion】Soil moisture content and bulk density had a significant effect on soil permittivity and the soil permittivity decreased with the increasing clay content. Also, there were differences in the permittivity of black soil and loess parent material. It was observed that electromagnetic waves could be reflected at their interfaces, which means that GPR can be applied to detect the black soil thickness on loess parent material. Our analysis revealed that topographic factors significantly affected the spatial variation of black soil thickness among the three slope types studied. Based on these results, this study could provide an efficient and accurate method to investigate soil thickness for further evaluation and conservation of black soil resources.

    • Effects of Freeze-thaw Cycles on Soil Aggregates Turnover in Mollisols Using Rare Earth Oxides as Tracers

      LIU Yajun, LIU Shuai, GAN Lei, ZHANG Zhongbin, PENG Xinhua

      2024,61(4):964-977, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212060674


      【Objective】To elucidate the effects of freeze-thaw cycles and initial water content on soil structure, rare earth oxides(REOs)were used as tracers to separate soil aggregates formation and breakdown processes. 【Method】REOs-labelled soil was reformed and investigated herein. Two initial water contents(50% field water holding capacity(T50)vs. 100% field water holding capacity (T100)) and five freeze-thaw cycles (0, 3, 6, 12 and 20 cycles) were involved in the simulation experiments. Soil aggregates distribution, mean weight diameter (MWD), and the aggregate turnover process were measured accordingly. 【Result】The results showed that freeze-thaw cycles significantly reduced MWD, > 0.25 mm aggregates and < 0.053 mm aggregates proportions, but increased the contents of 0.25~0.053 mm aggregates under the same initial water content. After 6 freeze-thaw cycles, MWD was significantly (P< 0.05) higher under T50 compared with that under T100, but there were no significant differences between the contents of 5~2 mm and < 0.25 mm aggregates. Except for 5~2 mm aggregates, the intensive transformation between neighboring size aggregates was observed during the whole simulation experiments. In the same freeze-thaw cycles, the transformation proportions from 5~2 mm to 0.25~0.053 mm aggregate were significantly (P < 0.05) higher under T100 compared with T50 treatment. The freeze-thaw cycles promoted the breakdown of > 0.25 mm aggregates and the formation of 0.25~0.053 mm aggregates both under T50 and T100 treatments. Also, MWD was significantly positively correlated with the relative formation of soil aggregates and negatively related with the relative breakdown of soil aggregates (P < 0.05). The turnover time of soil aggregate remarkably increased with the freeze-thaw cycles (P < 0.05) and the aggregate turnover time of > 0.25 mm aggregates was higher than that of < 0.25 mm aggregates. Comparatively, the aggregate turnover time was significantly higher under T100 than that under T50 with the same freeze-thaw cycle (P < 0.05). 【Conclusion】The freeze-thaw cycles and soil initial water content significantly affect the aggregate turnover. Both parameters change the stability of soil structure by affecting the aggregate formation and fragmentation processes. The results provide a theoretical basis for further exploration of the structural changes of black soil under freeze-thaw cycles.

    • Response of Water Stability of Lateritic Aggregates with Different Land Use Types under Different Antecedent Moisture Content

      WANG Jie, REN Shaocong, WEI Yujie, HUANG Yijing, YANG Bangge, CAI Chongfa

      2024,61(4):978-988, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301060007


      【Objective】 Antecedent moisture content is a critical factor affecting soil aggregate stability. However, its influence on the aggregate stability of lateritic soils developed from basalt has not been systematically investigated. To unravel the intricate interplay between soil properties, antecedent moisture content, and the water stability of lateritic soils developed from basalt, a meticulous investigation was undertaken. This study delved into the diverse land use types, aiming to shed light on the intricate relationship between these factors and aggregate water stability. 【Method】 In the latosol region of Hainan, a comprehensive study was conducted to examine the influence of three prevalent land use types, forest, cropland, and wasteland, on the soil properties and aggregate size distribution. Through a preliminary investigation, the tested soils were meticulously analyzed. The LB method, specifically the Fast Wetting variant, was employed to determine the aggregate size distribution within the 3-5 mm range across the various land use types. This assessment was performed under five distinct antecedent moisture contents of 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Subsequently, water stability indices, including Water Stability Index (WSA), Mean Weight Diameter (MWD), and Geometric Mean Diameter (GMD), were meticulously calculated to provide valuable insights into aggregate water stability. 【Result】Distinctive variations in soil properties, encompassing pH, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, and some exchangeable base cations, were prominently observed across different land use types. The distribution of water-stable aggregates in the lateritic soil exhibited either an unimodal or bimodal pattern, with peaks predominantly observed at 2-1 mm and 0.5-0.25 mm size fractions. Notably, forest soils displayed the highest aggregate stability among surface soils, while cultivated soils exhibited relatively weaker aggregate stability. Furthermore, subsurface soils demonstrated significantly lower aggregate stability (P<0.05) compared to surface soils. When considering air-dry conditions, characterized by moisture content during air-drying, the water stability of surface soil aggregates consistently exhibited high values(WSA>90%, MWD>1.5, GMD>1.2). As the antecedent moisture content increased, the proportion of macro aggregates (>2 mm) following aggregate fragmentation displayed varying degrees of change, ultimately resulting in an overall increase in the content of macro aggregates (>2 mm). It is noteworthy that the influence of land use type on aggregate water stability outweighed that of antecedent moisture content (F >56, P<0.01). Soil organic carbon (SOC) emerged as the primary factor explaining the variation in aggregate stability (R2=80.6%,PR2 = 66.0%, P<0.01), while capillary porosity demonstrated a noteworthy negative correlation. Among the soil sesquioxides, aluminum oxides (Ald, Alo) exerted a considerably larger impact on aggregate stability compared to other sesquioxides. In contrast, the influence of antecedent moisture content on aggregate stability was relatively modest, displaying a significant negative correlation (R2= 24.0%, P<0.01). 【Conclusion】The water stability of lateritic soil aggregates, which developed from basalt, exhibited pronounced sensitivity to land use, with forested areas surpassing wastelands and croplands surpassing cultivated land in terms of water stability. Additionally, the water stability of these lateritic soil aggregates showed an initial increase followed by a subsequent decrease as the antecedent moisture content increased. Notably, when compared to red soil, lateritic soil aggregates displayed a lower sensitivity to dissipative effects. The primary determinant influencing the stability of lateritic soil aggregates is the concentration of SOC. Variations in the stability of these aggregates across different land uses can be attributed to fluctuations in SOC levels.

    • Error Analysis of Soil Hydrothermal Parameters Synchronization Measurement Using Active Heated Fiber Optic

      HU You, SI Bingcheng, LI Min, HE Hailong, HE Dong, REN Hengye, LIU Lügang

      2024,61(4):989-997, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301160020


      【Objective】Soil hydrothermal parameters are fundamental physical parameters for studying soil thermal and hydraulic transport. Currently, the heat pulse probe HPP) method can synchronously measure soil hydrothermal parameters. However, but this method is limited to point-scale measurements, while the active heated fiber optic (AHFO) method holds the potential to extend the measurement scale to field-scale kilometers. 【Method】To investigate the errors of AHFO, we conducted comparative experiments between the AHFO and the HPP methods for measuring soil hydrothermal parameters. 【Result】 The results showed that, using the HPP method as a reference, the root mean square error (RMSE) of thermal conductivity measured by the AHFO method was 0.13 W·m–1.·℃–1. The thermal conductivity measured by the AHFO was significantly higher than that by the HPP method. This difference was attributed to the significant increase in temperature during the measurement by fiber optic which led to a temperature effect on the soil thermal conductivity around the fiber optic.【Conclusion】The measurement of error order of soil hydrothermal parameters using the AHFO method mainly originates from the contact thermal resistance between multiple interfaces (fiber optic core-air layer-metal layer-sheath-soil), the temperature sensitivity of the fiber optic, noise interference, and moisture migration under temperature gradients. This study can provide a theoretical reference for improving the accuracy of soil hydrothermal parameter determination by the AHFO method.

    • Effects of Long-term Tillage on Hydraulic Properties of Typical Black Soils

      HUANG Yiting, CHEN Junxi, GAO Yuhao, LI Xinyue, ZOU Ziqiang, CHEN Jiazhou

      2024,61(4):998-1008, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212010665


      【Objective】Undisturbed woodland and cultivated land soils from vertical and horizontal directions were collected across different latitudes in typical black soil regions in Northeast China for this research. The objective was to investigate the effects of long-term tillage in cultivated land on the black soil hydrological degradation. 【Method】 Nine typical cultivated land units were selected across three latitudes, including Jiusan Farm Management Area in Nenjiang (48°46′N), Hailun (47°30′N), and Bayan County in Harbin (46°23′N). Intact soil cores were collected from 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths in vertical and horizontal directions to determine soil penetration resistance (SPR), and hydraulic properties (water retention and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks). 【Result】 Results showed that soil SPR significantly increased in cultivated land compared to woodland, and the SPR in tillage pan layer (15-30 cm) (897.04 kPa) was 1.89 times higher than that in woodland. Soil hydraulic properties also significantly decreased in cultivated land, whose soil available water decreased to 0.15 (0.10-0.21) cm3·–3 compared to 0.19(0.14-0.23) cm3·–3 in woodland. Using soil physical quality index S to assess the over black soil quality showed that S value decreased from excellent 0.061 (0.041-0.094) in woodland to poor 0.025 (0.009-0.040) in cultivated land. The degradation of cultivated land quality was attributed to the significant reduction in soil organic matter content and significant increase in soil bulk density (1.31 g·cm–3 in cultivated land vs. 1.03 g·cm–3 in woodland). Long-term ridge tillage resulted in a 10 times reduction in Ks in tillage pan layer (6.61 cm·d–1), and this can be attributed to the disruption of balance between tillage and tillage pan layer and enlargement of magnitude difference for Ks and bulk density between two layers. Tillage resulted in a lower Ks in the vertical direction (64.67 cm·d–1)than in the horizontal direction (82.84 cm·d–1) in the tillage layer. The Ks decreased in a larger degree in the vertical direction and less degree in the horizontal direction. Thus, this heterogeneity of Ks in directions interfered the original water movement direction in tillage layer. The low hydraulic conductivity of the plough pan tends to accumulate precipitation and produce lateral interflow.【Conclusion】 Generally, long-term tillage has severely degraded the physical and hydraulic properties of the soil. The huge difference of soil compactness and Ks between the tillage layer and plough pan produced an artificially stratified soil in cultivated land. The limitation of water infiltration is a dominant reason for the "furrow effect" in cultivated land.

    • Analysis of Soil Detachment of Typical Grassland on Loess Plateau Based on Mechanical Parameters

      MA Jianye, MA Bo, SHE Fangtao, WANG Chenguang, SHANG Yongze, LI Zhanbin

      2024,61(4):1009-1020, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302060048


      【Objective】This study aimed to understand the erosion mechanism of typical grassland in the Loess Plateau by analyzing the mechanical mechanism of soil detachment. 【Method】The representative grassland with tap roots and fibrous roots was selected as the research object in this study. Undisturbed soil samples were collected and subjected to flow scouring, and the relative soil detachment capacity (RSD) was calculated. The soil shear strength and root tensile force were determined, and the root cohesion was estimated based on Wu's model. 【Result】The RSD of grassland with fibrous roots was 77.27% significantly lower than that of grassland with tap roots, while the soil cohesion (Cr) was 14.84% higher than that of grassland with tap roots. The expression effect of Cron RSD in the grassland with tap roots was better than that of root length density, and this effect was not obvious in the grassland with fibrous roots. The correlation between the RSD and soil shear strength under normal stress of 200 Kpa (τ200) was better than the shear strength under other normal stresses. In the root-soil composite, the effect of Cron soil detachment was stronger than that of τ200. Additionally, the soil detachment capacity of the root-soil composite in the grassland with tap roots, could be effectively predicted by the mechanical parameters, but the prediction of soil detachment capacity in the grassland with fibrous roots need to be further explored. 【Conclusion】Thus, this study presents an effective way to analyze the soil detachment mechanism by mechanical properties of root-soil composites. The results could provide a reference for the study of the erosion reduction mechanism of roots in the Loess Plateau.

    • Dissolution of Chromium and Oxidation of Exogenous Trivalent Chromium in Latosol

      SHI Yangxiaoxiao, JIANG Jun, LI Kewei, XU Renkou

      2024,61(4):1021-1030, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301290034


      【Objective】The contents of background chromium(Cr) and manganese(Mn) oxides in latosols are high. The dissolution of Cr and subsequent oxidation of Cr(III) in the soils may occur to produce Cr(VI) with high toxicity, thus, posing a threat to the surrounding environment and humans. Therefore, this study aimed to study the dissolution of Cr and the oxidation of Cr(III) in latosols collected from Yunnan, Hainan, and Guangdong Provinces to understand the ecological and environmental risks associated with chromium in latosols.【Method】The dissolution of Cr was investigated using batch experiment , while both batch and incubation experiments were used to investigate the oxidation of Cr(III) in the soils. The concentration of Cr in extractants was determined by an atomic absorption spectrometer. Also, dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate(DCB) extraction and electron probe scanning were used to examine the forms of Cr in the soils.【Result】The results of DCB extraction and electron probe scanning showed that Cr in latosols was mainly combined with iron oxides and silicates. Acidification by hydrochloric acid and complexation by citric acid promoted the dissolution of Cr from the soils. However, even in 1 mol·L–1 hydrochloric acid, only 3.68% and 3.54% of total Cr was dissolved from the latosols of Hainan 3 and Guangdong 9, respectively, suggesting that Cr in latosols is stable and presents a low environmental risk. The oxidation of Cr(III) was observed in the soils during a 42-day incubation experiment. Based on the net production of Mn (II), Cr(VI) content, and organic matter content, it is probable that the Cr(VI) generated in the soils might be reduced to Cr(III) again by soil organic matter. The results of the batch experiment showed that the exogenous Cr(III) was oxidized to Cr(VI) in the latosols with organic matters removed, and the amount of Cr(III) oxidized was determined by the content of easily reducible Mn(III/IV) oxides in the soils. With the increase of suspension pH, the oxidized amount of Cr(III) increased firstly, reached the largest amount at pH 4.5 and then decreased. At this pH, only 1.48% of Cr(III) added was oxidized to Cr(VI). Although exogenous Cr(III) can be oxidized to Cr(VI) by soil Mn(III/IV) oxides in the latosols, the percentage of Cr(III) oxidized to Cr(VI) in the latosols was small, indicating that the risk of exogenous Cr(III) oxidization in the soils was very low.【Conclusion】Despite the high contents of background Cr and easily reducible Mn (III/IV) oxides in the latosols, the dissolution of Cr and oxidation of Cr(III) were difficult. This shows that under the experimental conditions, it was not easy to convert Cr(III) to Cr(VI) through oxidation reactions, therefore, the risk of background Cr in latosols is low.

    • Distribution Characteristics of Fe(Al)-C in Zonal Soils of the Three-River Source Region

      ZHOU Shaolong, LI Yuemei, ZHANG Zhichun, ZHEN Guoyun, SUN Fenghao, OU Jianfang

      2024,61(4):1031-1041, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212130690


      【Objective】 This study aimed to understand the soil stable organic carbon (SSOC) storage of natural grassland in the hinterland of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and clarify its carbon fixation capacity and potential for increasing sinks. 【Method】The soil in the Three-River Source Region was divided according to regional space and three typical grassland types and the active layer soil was taken as the object. The soil total organic carbon (TOC) and Iron (aluminum)-bounded carbon [Fe(Al)-C] were analyzed, the relationship model was established with the geographical and climatic data, and the temporal and spatial variation law in recent 60 years(1961-2020) was retrieved. 【Result】The results show that: 1) The average content of Fe(Al)-C is 6.07 g·kg–1and the average content of[Fe(Al)-C]/TOC is 16.87% in the Three-River Source Region, with obvious zonal characteristics. Also, the content in the central and eastern regions was significantly higher than that in the western region (P < 0.05); 2) The contents of Fe(Al)-C and[Fe(Al)-C]/TOC in the three types of grassland were 2.35~8.81 g·kg–1and 11.99%~20.52%, respectively, and the alpine shrub meadow and alpine meadow were significantly higher than those in alpine steppe (P < 0.05). Fe(Al)-C was positively correlated with TOC in the three typical natural grassland types (P < 0.01). 3) The results of analog-digital mapping showed that the distribution area change of Fe(Al)-C in the Three-River Source Region has changed in the recent 20 years (2001-2020). Compared with the past two periods; 1961-1980 and 1981-2000, the distribution area with its content >5.75 g·kg–1 and increased by 1.64% on average. 【Conclusion】From our analysis, it was deduced that whole area is in a state of carbon sink, and the C fixation potential of Fe(Al)-C in soils in the Three-River Source Region can not be overlooked.

    • Carbon Footprint and Economic Benefits Analysis of Rice Planting Patterns in Jiangsu Province

      JI Guojun, JI Hongting, CHENG Kun, LIU Manqiang, JIANG Yu, HU Zhengkun, ZHANG Yuefang, HU Naijuan, HU Feng

      2024,61(4):1042-1054, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212180695


      【Objective】Little or no research has been done on the carbon footprint and economic benefits of different rice planting patterns at the provincial level. Thus, a systematic analysis of the carbon footprint and economic benefits of different rice planting patterns is of great significance for carbon emission reduction of rice production and the development of low-carbon agriculture.【Method】Based on the survey data of rice farming in Jiangsu Province, the carbon footprint and economic benefits of different rice planting patterns in Jiangsu Province were quantitatively analyzed by using the life cycle assessment method.【Result】The results showed that from 2016 to 2020, the carbon footprint per unit area, the carbon footprint per unit yield, and the carbon footprint per unit value were 11.28-14.39 t·hm–2,, 1.30-1.52 kg·kg–1 and 0.49-0.58 kg·yuan–1, respectively. The carbon footprint per unit area, per unit yield and per unit output value of different rice production and planting patterns were in order of broadcasted seeding rice or manual transplanting rice, mechanical transplanting rice, direct seeding rice. The carbon footprint per unit area of mechanical transplanting rice and manual transplanting rice production showed a decreased trend with the increase of years. Also, the carbon footprint per unit yield of mechanical transplanting rice, manual transplanting rice, and direct seeding rice production showed a decreased trend with the increase of years. Methane emissions from rice fields accounted for the largest proportion, followed by carbon footprints caused by nitrogen fertilization, nitrous oxide emissions from rice fields and carbon footprints caused by irrigation electricity. Nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity were the main driving factors affecting the regional differences in the carbon footprint of different rice planting patterns. The total income of different rice planting patterns was between 2.51×103- 2.75×103 yuan·hm–2, the resource input cost was 1.88×103- 1.99×103 yuan·hm–2, the carbon emission cost was 0.20×103- 0.25×103 yuan·hm–2, and the net income (NI-CO2) considering carbon emissions was 0.39×103- 0.64×103 yuan·hm–2. The NI-CO2 of mechanical transplanting rice was lower than that of manual transplanting rice, broadcasted seeding rice and direct seeding rice. This was mainly caused by the higher total income and the lower resource input cost and carbon emission cost of mechanical transplanting rice.【Conclusion】In conclusion, direct seeding rice was the lowest carbon emission rice planting pattern. Considering the carbon emission and economic benefits, machinal transplanting rice was superior to manual transplanting rice, direct seeding rice and broadcasted seeding rice.

    • The Adaptative Mechanisms of Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria for Elevated Atmospheric CO2 in Paddy Soil

      CAO Weiwei, YAN Chen, ZHONG Wenhui, ZHU Chunwu, ZHU Jianguo, JIA Zhongjun

      2024,61(4):1055-1065, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302160061


      【Objective】CH4 is the second most potent greenhouse gas only next to CO2. Continued CH4 and CO2 emissions by human activities pose a major challenge to the mitigation of global climate change. Rice paddy, a main form of artificial wetland, accounts for~8% of anthropogenic sources of CH4. The elevated atmospheric CO2(eCO2) affect the cycling of nutrients and elements in paddy fields mainly through the changes in plant-soil-microbe interactions, which also influence net CH4 flux associated with both the methanogenic and methanotrophic processes. However, how eCO2 affects aerobic methane oxidation in paddy soils has rarely been examined, and the adaptative mechanisms of active methane-oxidizing bacteria(MOB)for eCO2 remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes in methane-oxidizing rates and identify the active MOB phylotypes in paddy soil under the eCO2 treatment.【Method】We collected paddy soil samples from China’s FACE(Free Air CO2 Enrichment)experiment station, with FACE treatment and ambient CO2 concentration treatment (aCO2). The CH4-feeding microcosm incubation was applied to learn the methane-oxidizing rates in the two soils. DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of methane-oxidizing functional gene pmoA was used to identify the 13C-labeled DNA. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analysis for the 16S rRNA gene amplicons of the 13C-DNA were used to identify the active microbiomes during methane oxidation.【Result】The results showed that eCO2 significantly stimulated aerobic methane-oxidizing rate when compared to the ambient CO2 treatment, with 302 and 243 nmol CH4·g–1 d.w.s·h–1, respectively. The abundance of MOB increased by 1.1 folds -1.2 folds under eCO2. A group of MOB assimilated 13CH4 and synthesized 13C-DNA, which were separated into heavy fractions during DNA-SIP. The result of high-throughput sequencing for 13C-DNA showed that Methylobacter and Methylosarcina predominated the active MOB phylotypes. The relative abundance of Methylobacter increased by 16.2%-17.0% while the relative abundance of Methylosarcina decreased under eCO2. eCO2 also stimulated the activity of non-methanotrophic bacteria, such as Acidovorax and Pseudomonas, which implies a methanotrophy-induced microbial community response to eCO2.【Conclusion】This study reveals positive effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on aerobic methane oxidation in paddy soil, with the predominant and active MOB of Methylobacter playing crucial roles, indicating an improved potential of methane oxidation under the scenarios of global climate change.

    • Effects of Free-air CO2 Enrichment and Temperature Increase on Related Proteins and Defense Enzymes in Plants Infected with Rice Sheath Blight

      SHEN Min, CAI Chuang, SONG Lian, ZHANG Jishuang, TAO Ye, WANG Dongming, YANG Xiong, WEI Wei, ZHU Chunwu

      2024,61(4):1066-1076, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302220074


      【Objective】Sheath blight (ShB) is a soil-borne disease, whose occurrence and development seriously threatens rice (Oryza sativa L.) production. However, it is still unclear how elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature affect pathogenesis-related proteins (PR proteins) and defense enzymes in plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani.【Method】In this study, temperature by free-air CO2 enrichment(T-FACE) system was used with four treatments: ambient condition; elevated [CO2]([CO2] up to 590 μmol·mol–1); elevated temperature (temperature increased 2℃); the combination of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature. Two cultivars(a susceptible variety, Lemont and a resistant variety, YSBR1) were planted to explore the response of PR proteins and defense enzymes activities in leaves and stems for two cultivars by artificial inoculation of R. solani, as well as basic physical and chemical properties of soil.【Result】Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the growth rate of R. solani on soil extract medium, which was made by bulk soil under elevated [CO2] and temperature. After inoculation with R. solani, the development rate of the ShB lesion was not related to the basic physical and chemical properties of soil. The combination of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature induced different effects on PR proteins and defense enzymes activities in the leaves of two cultivars. For the PR proteins and defense enzymes in stems, the combination of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature obviously increased the catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities for both Lemont and YSBR1. For different cultivars, after being infected with R. solani, the activities of PR proteins and defense enzymes in the leaves and SOD and CAT in the stems for YSBR1 were significantly higher than those for Lemont under different treatments, and the development rate of ShB lesion for YSBR1 was significantly lower than that for Lemont. During the whole disease infection, elevated [CO2] and the combination of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature both significantly increased the development rate of rice ShB for Lemont by 21%-45%, but not for YSBR1. The correlation analysis showed that under different [CO2] and temperature treatments, the development rate of ShB was significantly positively correlated with GLU activity in stems for Lemont and YSBR1.【Conclusion】After inoculated R.solani, the defense reaction formed by PR proteins and defense enzymes in resistant cultivar can effectively reduce the effect of elevated [CO2] and temperature on the development rate of ShB in the future. This study can provide applications for breeding ShB-resistant cultivars to ensure global rice production under future climate change.

    • Effects of Phosphogypsum on Coastal Saline-sodic Soil and the Growth of Winter Wheat

      WU Hongsheng, CHEN Xiaoqing, MA Wenzhou, WANG Xiaoyun, CHENG Cheng, DING Jun, LI Yanhui, LIU Zheng, DUAN Yajun, DI Mingchun, LI Zhenwei, FENG Yingcheng, SHI Youhua

      2024,61(4):1077-1087, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302010038


      【Objective】There are about 0.66 million hectares of coastal saline-sodic soil in Jiangsu that have not been developed and used as arable land for agriculture. This is because the saline-sodic soil has a higher concentration of salt that requires urgent ameliorating. 【Method】This study used waste phosphogypsum (PG), a kind of by-product from the phosphate industry, to conduct an amelioration experiment of saline-sodic soil in the field. Eight treatments were employed in the field experiment: no fertilizer and PG, fertilizer but no PG, and compound fertilizer + different amounts of PG. 【Result】Results showed that pH was decreased by 0.07~0.40 pH units in the depth of 0~20 cm topsoil treated with PG compared to the control. Soil bicarbonate and sodium ions decreased by 15.81%~43.53% and 17.25%~89.83%, respectively. The concentration of potassium ion, calcium ion, and organic matter in the amended soil treated with PG was increased by 8.17%~384.90%, 59.51%~1977.72%, and 4.51%~19.50%, respectively. Also, the amounts of total N and P in the wheat leaves in the PG treatment were increased by 7.85%~26.21% and 5.02%~35.97%, respectively, and the wheat grain yield increased by 11.41%~45.26%. Overall, PG can be used to ameliorate costal saline-sodic soil with better effectiveness. Mechanistically, the increase in calcium ions occurred as PG exchanged with sodium ions adsorbed in soil, and the sodium ions were leached underground during irrigation and rain to decrease the soil pH. Also, some acid-containing groups in PG were able to neutralize the bicarbonate ions to decrease the soil pH. PG increased the N uptake in wheat leaves and the yield of wheat grain due to the increased P from PG which induced a proportionate uptake of nutrients by the plant. Comprehensively, the best performance was the treatments of 30% compound fertilizer (1050 kg`hm-2)+ PG (1125 kg`hm-2) and 30% compound fertilizer (1050 kg`hm-2)+ PG (2250 kg`hm-2).【Conclusion】The positive effect of PG should not be considered proportional to the amount applied, because trace hazardous elements in PG could accumulate in the soil which will result in environmental risks and grain safety issues. Thus, proper care should be taken when using high doses of PG for soil amendment.

    • Promoting Effect of Natural Humic Material on the Release of Water-soluble Phosphorus from Low-grade Phosphate Rock Powder

      YANG Qiang, ZHANG Congzhi, ZHANG Jiabao, PAN Hui, CHEN Zhuo, LI Jianpeng, ZHANG Can, TAN Jun

      2024,61(4):1088-1098, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212130689


      【Objective】The objective of this study was to disclose the structural characteristics and the relationship with phosphorus validity in the promoted phosphate rocks (PPR), which were made by mixing low-grade phosphate rock powder and natural humic material materials.【Method】Continuous water extraction, X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), and pot experiment were carried out to explore the phosphorus validity mechanism of PPR from dynamic release, structural characteristics and fertilizer effects. 【Result】The results showed that the release of water-soluble phosphorus showed an increasing trend with the increase of activator addition. After five leachings, the total water-soluble phosphorus released was 1.54 and 1.72 times higher than that of the control treatment when the mass ratio of natural humic material or HNO3-treated natural humic material mixed with low-grade phosphate rock powder was 20: 80. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to P2O5 and Ca(PO3)2 showed a significant decrease after five leaching of natural humic material or HNO3-treated natural humic material mixed with low-grade phosphate rock powder. The results of FTIR spectral analysis showed that the disappearance of the PO43- symmetric stretching vibration v1 at 966 cm-1 was evident after five leaching cycles of natural humic material or HNO3-treated natural humic material mixed with low-grade phosphate rock powder, while the intensity of the PO43- asymmetric stretching vibration v3, H2PO4- associated absorption peaks, and HPO42- associated absorption peaks at 1 127, 673 and 612 cm-1 were significantly decreased. The pot experiment further showed that natural humic material or HNO3-treated natural humic material as a high-quality organic material applied at 6 g`kg-1 or 9 g`kg-1 while mixed with low-grade phosphate powder at a 20: 80 mass ratio could significantly increase the available phosphorus content of the soil, while rapidly increasing the soil organic matter content. When natural humic material was applied at 9 g`kg-1 and mixed with low-grade phosphate powder at a mass ratio of 20: 80, soil available phosphorus was increased by 29.86%, 29.47%, and 36.48% while soil organic matter was increased by 34.16%, 8.05%, and 47.40%, respectively, compared to control treatment on days 14, 30, and 60 after sowing. Also, when HNO3-treated natural humic material was applied under similar conditions, soil available phosphorus was increased by 36.97%, 94.44%, and 34.51% while soil organic matter was increased by 27.29%, 14.57%, and 45.41%, respectively, compared with control treatment on days 14, 30, and 60 after sowing.【Conclusion】Natural humic material or HNO3-treated natural humic material with acidic pH, high specific surface area, high humus content and a high number of active functional groups were responsible for enhancing the water-soluble phosphorus content of low-grade phosphate rock powder and soil available phosphorus.

    • Effects of Foliar Spraying of Sorbitol Chelated Potassium on Peanut Yield and Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Community

      SUN Wei, ZHANG Huanyang, WEI Qianqian, ZENG Fanhe, LI Tengsheng, ZHAO Li, HAN Chuanhao, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Ziqi, SHI Xiang, YAN Dongyun

      2024,61(4):1099-1110, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301030003


      【Objective】China depends heavily on agricultural potassium fertilizer imported from abroad. Thus, it is important to improve potassium utilization efficiency by changing the existing forms of potassium.【Method】In this paper, a two-year field trial (in 2020 and 2021) was set up using Virginia-type peanut Huayu 22 to investigate the effects of inorganic potassium (free ionic state) and sorbitol chelated potassium on peanut yield, dry matter accumulation, potassium accumulation, and bacterial community structure in peanut rhizosphere soil by a completely randomized block design. Under the premise of conventional fertilization, peanut spraying experiments were carried out at different growth stages and with five treatments: CK, water control; IK, inorganic potassium; MK, sorbitol mixed inorganic potassium; SK, sorbitol chelated potassium (self-made); and LK, commercially available chelated potassium (Canada).【Result】The results showed that foliar topdressing potassium fertilizer on leaves could significantly increase the peanut yield. Compared with the treatment of IK or LK treatments, the two-year average yield of SK treatments increased by 18.9% and 14.97%, respectively. The yield components of 100-seed weight, 100-pod weight, and full fruit rate were all significantly improved. Also, the dry matter accumulation and potassium accumulation of peanut plants treated with sorbitol-chelated potassium were significantly increased. Compared with CK, IK, and LK treatments, the total dry matter of peanut plants treated with SK increased by 19.5%, 19.1%, and 15.7% in the stage of the full pod, and increased by 22.8%, 27.4%, and 11.7% at the mature stage, respectively. Potassium accumulation in peanut kernels increased by 30.6%, 49.8% and, 44.8% in the stage of full pod, and increased by 30.8%, 59.1%, and 10.8% at the mature stage, respectively. The above results showed that self-made sorbitol-chelated potassium could promote the absorption and distribution of potassium nutrients in plants. Furthermore, the microbial diversity and richness of peanut rhizosphere soil increased under SK treatment compared with the other treatments. Compared with CK, MK, and LK treatments, the Sobs index of microbial communities in SK treatment increased by 10.7%, 12.5%, and 10.7%, respectively. The species significantly enriched in SK treatment were p-Verrucomicrobiota_g-Roseimicrobium and p-Planctomycetota_c-vadinHA49. The correlation analysis showed that the increase in production was significantly related to the absorption and distribution of potassium and the changes in rhizosphere microorganisms.【Conclusion】In summary, compared with inorganic potassium form, sorbitol-chelated potassium could promote the absorption and accumulation of potassium in peanuts at the same potassium application level, which is comprehensively reflected in production. The research results could provide theoretical and practical references for improving potassium efficiency.

    • Study on the Mechanism of Increased Iron Availability by Rhizosphere Iron-Solubilizing Bacteria in Combination with AM Fungi in Calcareous Soil

      PENG Haiying, SHAO Yadong, LI Han, LI Peigen, DING Bailing, YANG Tianjie, XU Yangchun, SHEN Qirong, DONG Caixia

      2024,61(4):1111-1122, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202212080680


      【Objective】The low availability of iron in calcareous soil leads to serious iron-deficiency chlorosis in plants. Thus, it is important to screen highly efficient iron-solubilizing bacteria and explore their collaboration with mycorrhizal fungi (AM) to increase the available iron content and improve plant iron nutrition. 【Method】Pot experiments were conducted with calcareous soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) as test materials. They were inoculated with Advenella kashmirensis(B1), Arthrobacter cupressi (B2), Klebsiella variicola(B3), Variovorax guangxiensis (B4) and Enterobacter ludwigii (B5), and treatment with no bacteria inoculation as the control group (CK). Efficient iron-solubilizing bacterial strains B1, B2 and B3 were screened and combined with AMF (Rhizoshagu irregularis, Ri)as B1+Ri, B2+Ri, B3+Ri and B1+B2+B3+Ri treatments. Also, AM fungi were inoculated alone (Ri) to explore the mechanism of synergistic effect between different iron-solubilizing bacteria and AMF to mobilize insoluble iron in calcareous soil and promote iron absorption in plants. 【Result】The results showed that compared with the control treatment, inoculation with B1, B2 and B3 strains could significantly increase the tomato biomass and the total iron accumulation in root and shoot increased by 6.48 and 2.61, 4.11 and 2.03, 4.37 and 2.25 times, respectively. The active iron content in new leaves increased by 74.21%, 1.33 times and 1.75 times. Compared with inoculation with AMF alone, different co-inoculation combinations significantly increased the tomato biomass, and the average total iron accumulation in different parts of the plant increased by 58.32%-119.43%. Under B3+Ri and B1+B2+B3+Ri treatments, the active iron content in tomato roots increased by 41.47% and 44.30%, and new leaves increased by 12.61% and 12.77%, respectively. Different co-inoculation combinations could effectively improve the root architecture of the plant, and the mycorrhizal infection rates of AM fungi under different co-inoculation treatments were 13.35%-30.99% higher than those under inoculation alone. The root iron reductase activity was significantly increased by 9.86%-22.07% compared with the inoculation with AM fungi alone, and the relative expressions level of LeFIT1,LeFRO2 and LeMYB72 in tomato roots was significantly up-regulated. Compared with exclusive AMF inoculation, B3+Ri and B1+B2+B3+Ri treatments reduced the rhizosphere soil pH value by 0.21 and 0.09, respectively, but increased the soil available Fe content by 15.78% and 55.23%.【Conclusion】It was concluded that the synergistic effect of AM fungi and three high-efficiency iron-solubilizing bacteria could significantly improve iron availability in calcareous soil and enhance plant iron nutrition. However, the synergistic mechanism between different types of iron-solubilizing bacteria and AMF was different and provided a microbial approach to solve the problem of low iron availability in calcareous soil.

    • Effects of Biochar and Organic Fertilizers Combined Application on Spectral Characteristics of Soil Dissolved Organic Matter in Paddy Soil

      LIANG Dong, ZHOU Qiaolin, ZHANG Hui, MA Hongbo, Ning Yunwang, ZHANG Yongchun, XU Cong, JIAO Jiaguo, WANG Jidong

      2024,61(4):1123-1133, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302020039


      【Objective】This study aimed to investigate the long-term and synergistic effects of Biochar and organic fertilizer on dissolved organic matter (DOM) in paddy soil. 【Method】Several fertilization treatments were tested over five years, including a control (CK), biochar (BC), fertilizer(N), biochar+fertilizer (N+BC), manure+fertilizer (MF, 25% nitrogen replacement), and manure+fertilizer+biochar(MF+BC, 25% nitrogen substitution). The effects of these treatments on soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, accessible potassium, soil organic carbon (SOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and dissolved organic carbon were examined. The spectral properties and fluorescence components of DOM were characterized using the ultraviolet-visible spectrum (UV-Vis), fluorescence spectrum, and parallel factor analysis. Also, the specific UV absorbance, UV absorption slope rate, fluorescence index, biological index, humification index, and relative amounts of fulvic acid, tryptophan, and humic acid of the DOM were examined. 【Result】The results showed that by utilizing biochar and organic fertilizer, soil acidity could be decreased and rice productivity effectively increased. The MF+BC treatment had the highest rice productivity and soil available phosphorus of all the treatments. Significantly(P<0.05)favorable correlations between rice yield and DOM's bioavailability, aromatization, humification, tryptophan concentration, and hydrophilicity were found. The order of the degree of humification and bioavailability increase in DOM was manure > biochar. Furthermore, biochar significantly increased DOM, fulvic acid, and tryptophan components and promoted the conversion of ROC to dysoxidizable-organic carbon, whereas organic fertilizer increased ROC, fulvic acid, tryptophan, and humic acid components. The application of Biochar and organic fertilizer had an interaction effect on the increase of rice production, ROC, DOM, fulvic acid, tryptophan, aromatization, humification, and DOM bioavailability. 【Conclusion】Thus, the combined application of biochar and organic fertilizers increased rice yield while also enhancing the functional diversity of organic carbon and DOM components in paddy soil.

    • Effects of Combined Application of Straw and Organic-inorganic Fertilizers on Key Microorganisms and Wheat Yield in Fluvo-aquic Soil

      GUO Wei, ZHOU Yunpeng, CHEN Meiqi, LI Dandan, WANG Qingxia, ZHOU Tantan, ZHAO Bingzi

      2024,61(4):1134-1146, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202303010086


      【Objective】The combined application of crop straw with chemical fertilizers and chicken manure can change soil microbial community structure and the interaction between microorganisms. However, whether there is a correlation between these changes and wheat yield remains unclear.【Method】A 7-year field experiment was used as the research platform, and this included five management strategies: (1) N0S0: no fertilizer or crop straw returning, (2) N0S: crop straw returning, (3) NS0: traditional chemical fertilization, (4) NS: crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer, and (5) NSM: crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and the nitrogen was substituted 20% by chicken manure. The effects of different management strategies on microbial community composition in bacterial-fungal co-occurrence networks and the correlation between key microorganisms and wheat yield were studied.【Result】The results showed that compared with N0S0 treatment, the grain yield of wheat under NS0, NS and NSM treatments increased by 539.20%, 611.56% and 676.56%, respectively, while there was no significant change under N0S treatment. The bacterial and fungal community compositions were divided into three significantly different groups: N0S0 and N0S, NS0, and NS and NSM, respectively, indicating that the microbial community composition was significantly different with or without chemical fertilizer application. Under both chemical fertilizer applications, there was a significant difference in whether organic materials were applied. Ranked from high to low importance, we found that available phosphorus, electrical conductivity, microbial biomass nitrogen, soil organic carbon, readily oxidizable organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon were the main soil physicochemical properties that caused the changes in bacterial community composition under different treatments. Also, electrical conductivity, microbial biomass nitrogen, readily oxidizable organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, available phosphorus, and soil organic carbon were the main soil physicochemical properties that caused the changes in fungal community composition under different treatments. In the bacterial-fungal co-occurrence network, two key modules (module 1 and module 4) were significantly correlated with wheat yield changes. NS+NSM treatments increased the relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms in module 4, including Nocardioides, Cellulomonas, Pir4_lineage, Chrysosporium,Acaulium, and Schizothecium, which were positively correlated with wheat yield. These beneficial microorganisms could degrade cellulose and lignin, promote nutrient conversion and recycling, or inhibit the growth of the potential pathogen. NS+NSM treatments also significantly reduced the relative abundance of plant pathogenic fungi in module 1, including Stachybotrys,Achroiostachys, and Fusicolla, which were negatively correlated with wheat yield and were detrimental to soil health and crop growth.【Conclusion】Therefore, crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and crop straw returning with chemical fertilizer and chicken manure were beneficial to the increase of key beneficial microorganisms and the decrease of pathogenic fungi. The function and the relative abundance of key microorganisms had effects on wheat yield.

    • Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Glomalin in Soil Aggregates: A Meta-Analysis

      WANG Guoxi, WANG Ping, LIU Yalong, WANG Jingkuan

      2024,61(4):1147-1155, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202301170024


      【Objective】This study aimed to understand the role of glomalin in maintaining soil organic carbon (SOC) balance and soil aggregate stability, and construct management strategies for improving soil structure and soil quality. 【Method】 To fully understand glomalin, published data in recent years (332 sets of data from 19 literature) were collected, the distribution characteristics of glomalin in soil aggregates were quantitatively analyzed, and its influencing factors were systematically analyzed. Moreover, the distribution of glomalin in soil aggregates under different land uses was compared. 【Result】The results showed that the mass percentages of the > 2 000 μm and 2 000-250 μm aggregates (about 40%, respectively) were significantly higher than that of the 250-53 μm aggregates ( about 20%). The proportion of easily extractable glomalin in total glomalin was 20% in<53 μm aggregates, which was lower than other particle sizes (> 30%). There was no significant difference in the glomalin-C in SOC in different aggregates. The proportion of easily extractable glomalin-C in aggregates of different particle sizes was about 2%, while the proportion of total glomalin-C was about 8%.【Conclusion】In the >250 μm aggregates, GRSP (glomalin related soil protein) increased with the increase of temperature and precipitation, but decreased with the increase of pH. Although these correlations were not found in <250 μm aggregates, there was a significant positive correlation between glomalin and SOC. By comparing different land use patterns, it was found that the glomalin in the aggregates of forest soil was more than those in farmland and grassland, which indicated that forest soil was more conducive to the accumulation of glomalin than farmlands and grasslands.

    • Effects of Temperature and Arsenic on Growth and Arsenic Uptake of Different Rice Varieties during Seedlings Stage

      ZHAI Yiran, LI Renying, ZHANG Qi, QI Mengru, LU Binghao, HUANG Lidong, XU Xianghua

      2024,61(4):1156-1165, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302120058


      Temperature and exogenous arsenic are important factors affecting rice growth. Due to climate warming, rice growth is affected by a combination of temperature and arsenic in rice fields contaminated by arsenic. Clarifying the combination can provide a theoretical basis for rice management and safety production.【Method】Germination and culture experiments were carried out in the artificial climate chamber under the condition of different exogenous arsenic concentrations [0(As0), 0.5(As0.5) and 1(As1) mg`L-1] and different temperature simulations [daytime/nighttime 30℃/25℃(T0) and 35℃/30 ℃(T1)] using eight common rice varieties in Jiangsu Province. Seed germination, seedling growth and arsenic uptake of different rice varieties were analysed. 【Result】The results showed that exogenous arsenic inhibited sprout length and vigor index of rice. Compared with T0As0, T0As1 reduced the sprout length and vigor index of different rice varieties by 13.69%-43.34% and 28.14%-52.88%, respectively, and the effect of temperature on rice seed germination was related to rice varieties. Under the condition of T1 treatment, the germination rate, sprout length and vigor index of Yanliangyou 1618 were better than those of other varieties. The interaction of temperature and exogenous arsenic significantly decreased the sprout length (P < 0.05). Compared with T0As0, T1As1 decreased sprout length by 5.66%-43.34%. Also, single temperature or exogenous arsenic had a significant effect on rice root length and root vigor. Compared with T0As0, T0As1 reduced root vigor by 3.01%-58.21%. The interaction of temperature and exogenous arsenic inhibited rice root length and root vigor. Compared with T0As0, T1As1 significantly reduced root vigor of different rice varieties by 53.80%-89.01%. The seedling height and root vigor of different rice varieties had significant differences (P < 0.05) under the same treatment of temperature or exogenous arsenic, among which the seedling height and root vigor of Yanliangyou 888 were at higher levels. The arsenic concentration in rice stems and leaves increased significantly under exogenous arsenic while the arsenic concentration in rice stems and leaves decreased under the increase in temperature. Furthermore, compared with single arsenic treatment, arsenic concentration in rice stems and leaves decreased under the interaction of temperature and exogenous arsenic. 【Conclusion】From the above results, it can be concluded that temperature and exogenous arsenic affected rice growth and arsenic uptake. However, rice growth conditions and arsenic concentration were significantly different among rice varieties. The germination and growth of Yanliangyou 888 and Yanliangyou 1618 were better than other rice varieties under the condition of temperature and exogenous arsenic.

    • Effects of Seed Soaking in Fe3O4 Nanoparticle on Tomato Seed Germination and Seedling Protective Enzyme System under Saline Stress

      CHEN Siyuan, LU Yao, WU Sifan, QI Yongbing, ZHENG Qingsong, ZHANG Xinyue, ZHAO Wenjia, CHEN Jun

      2024,61(4):1166-1178, DOI: 10.11766/trxb202302090055


      【Objective】This study examined the effect and mechanism by which nano-sized iron oxide regulates crop tolerance to salt. 【Method】Nanoparticle Fe3O4(Fe3O4NPs) with a particle size of about 10 nm was synthesized by the coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry and electron microscopy. Selected tomato seeds were soaked in 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg·L-1of Fe3O4NPs solution and the effects on seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant system under NaCl stress were evaluated. 【Result】 Fe3O4NPs with a particle size of 10 nm were synthesized and successfully passed the characterization analysis and identification. It was found that under salt stress, soaking tomato seeds in 1 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs reduced seed germination. However, seed germination was improved as the concentration of Fe3O4NPs was increased. Under 100 mmol·L-1NaCl stress, the seed germination potential and hypocotyl length after soaking in 200 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs reached the peak, which was significantly higher than those treated with salt stress only. Salt stress of 100 mmol·L-1NaCl significantly reduced the seedling rate, fresh biomass and water content of tomato seedlings, and this negative trend was intensified after soaking the seeds in 1 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs. With an increase in the concentration of Fe3O4NPs, the negative impact of salt stress was alleviated and the fresh biomass and water content of seedlings soaked with 200 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs reached the peak, which was significantly higher than those treated only with salt. Under salt stress, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in tomato seedlings soaked in 1 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs increased significantly, while the activity of catalase (CAT) decreased significantly. With an increase in the concentration of Fe3O4NPs, the activities of SOD and POD gradually decreased and then gradually increased while that of CAT gradually increased and then decreased. Specifically, the activities of SOD and POD in seedlings treated with 100-200 mg·L-1 Fe3O4NPs were the lowest, while the activity of CAT was the highest. Also, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline (Pro), superoxide anion (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in seedlings treated with 200 mg·L-1Fe3O4NPs were the lowest of all treatments. The correlation analysis showed that the fresh biomass and seedling rate of seedlings were significantly negatively correlated with the activities of SOD and POD, as well as the contents of MDA and reactive oxygen species. 【Conclusion】 Fe3O4NPs with a particle size of 10 nm were prepared by the coprecipitation method. It was found for the first time that the germination and emergence of tomato seedlings under salt stress could be mitigated by Fe3O4NPs and the effect was proportional to the concentrations of Fe3O4NPs. For example, treating seeds with 1 mg·L-1 Fe3O4NPs inhibited germination due to increased oxidative stress whereas 200 mg·L-1 Fe3O4NPs showed significant promotion of germination, seedling formation and seedling strength. This study provides scientific basis and technical support for the application of nanomaterials to improve agriculture in saline soil.

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      • Short-term Low Nitrogen Addition Alters the Molecular Composition and Stability of Soil Dissolved Organic Matter in a Pinus taiwanensis Forest

        YUAN Xiaochun, ZHANG Xiaoqing, ZHOU Qian, WU Lianzuan, CHEN Junming, ZENG Quanxin, BAI Xinyu, LI Wenzhou, CHEN Yuemin

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311160476


        【Objective】Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is highly sensitive to environmental changes, and its dynamic changes are crucial for understanding regional/global carbon cycling under global change scenarios. However, it is not yet clear how the characteristics of soil DOM molecules change under nitrogen deposition. This study aimed to investigate the response of DOM molecular composition and stability to nitrogen addition. 【Method】In this study, three nitrogen addition levels (0, 40, and 80 kg?hm-2?a-1) were conducted in a Pinus taiwanensis forest by using urea addition to simulate nitrogen deposition in the field. The effect of short-term (three years) nitrogen addition on the molecular composition of DOM and its stability was investigated using high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). 【Result】The results of FT-ICR MS analysis revealed that DOM molecules were mainly concentrated in 250-400 Da, and CHO compounds accounted for more than 50% of all compounds. Of the eight types of DOM molecules, lignin-like molecules dominated all soil DOM molecules, followed by tannins and condensed aromatics, with the relative abundance of readily decomposable small molecules (including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates) being low. There was no statistically significant change in the content and optical properties of DOM under nitrogen addition, but significant changes occurred in the properties and composition of DOM molecules. Compared to high nitrogen treatment, low nitrogen treatment significantly reduced the relative abundance of carbohydrate molecules in DOM by 73.33%. This may be largely attributed to the increase in microbial biomass and hydrolytic enzyme activities. Nitrogen addition did not change the nitrogen-containing compounds in DOM molecules, but reduced the sulfur-containing compounds. Furthermore, the average molecular weight and ratio of double bond equivalent to carbon atom number (DBE/C), modified aromaticity index (AImod), and aromaticity equivalent (Xc) of DOM molecule did not show significant changes under nitrogen addition. However, a significant increase in DBE values was observed under low nitrogen addition, indicating an improvement in the molecular stability of DOM. The improvement of DOM molecular stability may have a potential impact on soil carbon pool stability. Pearson""s correlation analysis revealed that DBE values were significantly negatively correlated with small molecule compounds such as carbohydrates and proteins/amino sugars, while the correlation with large molecules such as lignin and condensed aromatics was not significant. Besides, nitrogen addition did not significantly change the difficult-to-decompose molecules such as lignin and condensed aromatic compounds in DOM. This suggests that the molecular stability of DOM under short-term nitrogen addition may depend on the removal of readily decomposable small molecules, such as carbohydrates, rather than the increment of refractory molecules.【Conclusion】Collectively, this study provides a new perspective at the molecular level for understanding the behavior of soil DOM under nitrogen deposition, and a reference for understanding the potential relationship between DOM molecules and soil carbon stability.

      • Effects of Straw Carbon Types on Fungal Community Characteristics of Soil Aggregates

        WANG Ping, DONG JianXin, XIA Longlong, HE Jing, KUANG Shuai, XU YanLi, CONG Ping

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309250398


        【Objective】Fungal decomposition plays a key role as the primary driving force of the nutrient cycling and energy flow in the soil. However, the response characteristics of fungal communities to different types of straw carbon inputs and the key environmental factors at the aggregate scale are not yet clear.【Method】In this study, corn straw was used as the experimental, and three treatments were set according to the equal carbon content of straw returning: regular crushed straw (RS), decomposed straw (DS) and straw biochar (BC). A control group without straw application (CK) was also set up. The study aimed to investigate the effects of different carbon types from straws on the diversity, composition, and distribution of fungi in soil macroaggregates (>0.25 mm) and microaggregates (<0.25 mm), as well as the interactions within fungal communities. Furthermore, key environmental factors influencing the variation of soil fungal communities were explored.【Result】The results of a 2-year field experiment indicate that RS treatment significantly reduced fungal α diversity (P < 0.05) in microaggregates (< 0.25 mm) and macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm). The top three dominant phyla in each treatment were Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, and Basidiomycota, while the top three dominant genera were Plectosphaerella, Chaetomium, and Mortierella. Compared to different aggregate size fractions, the treatment with straw carbon significantly induced differentiation in fungal community structure (P < 0.01), with notably distinct fungal community structure observed in the RS treatment compared to the other treatments. Also, analysis of fungal co-occurrence network showed that BC treatment increased the number of nodes (10.08%) and modularity (5.55%) while DS treatment increased the number of nodes (11.17%), the number of edges (32.57%) and the average degree of nodes (19.27%) included in the co-occurrence network, and all of which improved the structural stability of the fungal network of soil aggregates. The Mantel test analysis found that ammonium nitrogen (AN) and pH were the key environmental factors affecting the fungal community structure of soil aggregates, with the fungal community in the RS treatment being the most influenced by soil environmental factors. The prediction analysis of fungal community function showed that the input of straw carbon could reduce the relative abundance of pathogenic fungi and reduce the occurrence of soil-borne diseases in farmland. 【Conclusion】Our results reveal that in the short term, different soil aggregates of fungi are more susceptible to the influence of straw carbon types, leading to differentiation. The addition of decomposed straw and straw biochar can increase soil AN content, thereby increasing the complexity of the fungal network, thus, promoting fungal community stability. Therefore, for practical applications, it is advisable to consider appropriately increasing the input of decomposed straw or straw biochar to promote the stability of soil ecological functions.

      • Evaluation of Soil Conservation Function in The Sichuan-Yunnan Ecological Barrier Area Based on The InVEST Model

        TAO Qin, WANG Shihang, WANG Qi, LIU Feng, ZHAO Mingsong, XU Shengxiang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307260292


        【Objective】The Sichuan-Yunnan ecological barrier area is an important ecological function area in China. To reduce the increasing ecological degradation and soil erosion, it is important to research soil erosion and soil conservation functions. 【Method】The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model was used to characterize the spatial distribution of soil erosion and soil retention in 2000, 2010, 2015, and 2020. The GeoDetector was applied to detect the main controlling factors of soil erosion. 【Result】The results showed that the soil erosion modulus and the total amount of soil erosion in the four phases showed a trend of decreasing and then increasing. The erosion intensity was dominated by mild erosion, accounting for about 85% of the whole area, and mainly distributed in the eastern part of the area. The light and more than light erosion intensity were mostly distributed in the western part. Soil conservation modulus in 2000, 2010, 2015, and 2020 were 4.0×103, 3.5×103, 3.5×103, and 4.5×103 tkm-2, respectively, and soil conservation amount were 9.6×108, 8.3×108, 8.2×108, and 1.1×109 t, respectively. The influence degree of each influencing factor on soil erosion in descending order was as follows: land use type, elevation, fractional vegetation cover, soil erodibility, erosivity, and slope. The interaction effects between factors on soil erosion were greater than that single factor, and the interaction between land use type and soil erodibility had the strongest effects on soil erosion.【Conclusion】Although soil erosion in the Sichuan-Yunnan ecological barrier area shows a worsening trend, soil conservation is gradually improving, and soil conservation is stronger than soil erosion, and overall, the Sichuan-Yunnan area is developing in a better direction.

      • A Review of Soil 3D Prediction and Modelling Techniques

        XIE Xianli, XIA Chengye, YIN Biao, LI Anbo, LI Kaili, PAN Xianzhang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311140473


        Soil is a complex with high heterogeneity. The early research on digital soil mapping mainly focused on the lateral variation of soil, with less consideration of the vertical variation and three-dimensional (3D) digital soil mapping. In recent years, the rapid developments of 3D geographic information technology and earth observation and detection technology have greatly promoted research on soil 3D data acquisition, 3D prediction, 3D data modeling, 3D model and visualization. In this paper, we reviewed the existing research on soil prediction and soil model construction in 3D space, to provide suggestions for the application and development of 3D digital soil mapping. We searched the Web of Science database by using 3D soil mapping, 3D GIS, 3D data model, 3D geological modeling, 3D visualization, soil spatial variability, spatial prediction, Kriging interpolation, soil-landscape analysis, depth function, machine learning, geostatistics, random simulation as keywords, and selected the key literatures for analysis based on correlation, citation rate and literature sources. We summarized the popular methodologies for soil spatial variability, 3D spatial soil prediction, soil 3D data model, and 3D model construction, and evaluated the advantages, disadvantages and application scenarios of each method. This review presents the common problems of 3D soil mapping, such as sparse soil profile data, low accuracy of 3D soil prediction, and insufficient information to create the data source for 3D soil modelling, and put forward some feasible research prospects.

      • In situ Dissolution Kinetics of Ammonium Nitrogen Interacting with Precipitated Calcium Phosphate Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy

        GE Xinfei, ZHANG Wenjun

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309210395


        【Objective】The increase in global food demand and the consumption of phosphorus (P) fertilizer in modern agriculture have caused P accumulation in extensively managed croplands. Most of the accumulated P deposits exist in sparingly soluble or insoluble species, leading to their low availability, which is almost impossible to use directly by plants or microorganisms. Therefore, improving the utilization of soil accumulated P is not only one of the effective ways to enhance the utilization efficiency of P fertilizers but also relieves the increasing tension of P resources. At present, a large number of macroscopic field experiments have revealed the synergistic promoting effect of nitrogen (N) on P activation and uptake. However, in the N and P interaction, in-situ observation of dissolved N interacting with precipitated P has been lacking. 【Method】Herein, Ca-P precipitates with different solubilities, namely sparingly soluble (DCPD) and insoluble (HAP), were selected as test materials. Taking aqueous solution as control, five NH4Cl concentrations (0.5, 5, 50, 500, 1,000 mmol?L-1) were set as N sources. The in-situ dissolution kinetics of DCPD and HAP at different N levels were directly observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM-based dynamic force spectroscopy (DFS) technique was employed to characterize the interaction between ammonium cations and DCPD/HAP surfaces at the molecular scale. 【Result】The result showed that the surface dissolved immediately, accompanied by the formation of triangular etch pits, following the addition of NH4Cl. When increasing the NH4Cl concentration, the surface dissolution rate of DCPD was significantly promoted. The quantitative results further exhibited the dissolved P mass was significantly increased from 27.00 mg?kg-1 to 145.0 mg?kg-1 with the increase of NH4Cl concentration from 0.5 mmol?L-1 to 1 000 mmol?L-1. By contrast, the surface morphology of HAP almost remained constant without obvious dissolution even if the NH4Cl concentration was up to 1 000 mmol?L-1. The dissolved P mass was 5.00 mg?kg-1, which was not significant compared with the dissolved P mass of 3.00 mg?kg-1 in aqueous solution. AFM-based DFS results showed that the interaction force between ammonium cations and DCPD (230.6 pN) was significantly greater than that between ammonium cations and HAP (154.0 pN). Due to the difference in binding strength of ammonium cations on Ca-P surfaces at the molecular level, the hydration layer of mineral surfaces is destroyed at different degrees. As a result, the surface dissolution kinetics of DCPD and HAP were significantly different when regulated by ammonium cations. 【Conclusion】This research provides method guidance for in-situ observation of nanoscale dissolution kinetics of different Ca-P minerals. It also illustrates the enhanced interface dissolution on negatively charged DCPD induced by ammonium cation to release available P, thus improving the continuous P supply capacity in soils.

      • Characteristics of Spatial Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon in Anhui Province Based on Soil Profile Occurrence Layer and Environmental Variables

        GAO Wenjing, XIA Bing, LU Yuanyuan, YING Rongrong, HU Pengjie, LI Yixu, CHEN Hongfeng, QIAN Jiazhong

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202402040063


        【Objective】Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle, and extremely small changes in SOC could cause dramatic changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Accurately grasping the spatial distribution characteristics of SOC and its main controlling factors is an important requirement for improving soil carbon sequestration potential and coping with climate change. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of SOC in the topsoil layer (A genetic horizon), subsoil layer (B genetic horizon), and parent material layer (Parent material) in Anhui Province from the perspective of the soil profile occurrence layer and explore the factors controlling the changes of SOC in different profile occurrence layers.【Method】 In this study, a total of 451 sites were distributed in the study area using the systematic distribution method combined with the judgmental distribution method. The basic soil parameters, such as SOC content, pH, soil texture, and bulk density, were obtained from 451 sites through wild sampling and indoor experiments. Meanwhile, the related environmental variables, such as climatic factors, topographic factors, and normalized difference vegetation index, were also collected. Also, we used geostatistical methods to obtain the best half-variance function model and spatial distribution characteristics of SOC content at different soil profile levels, as well as correlation analysis and random forest regression analysis to explore the influencing factors of spatial differences in SOC content.【Result】The results showed that the average organic carbon content of the soil profile in Anhui Province was 8.47 g?kg-1 and there was a phenomenon of surface aggregation of SOC, whose occurrence in the layer was as follows: A genetic horizon: 15.86 g?kg-1 > B genetic horizon: 5.80 g?kg-1 > Parent material: 3.74 g?kg-1 and all of them had moderate spatial variability. The spatial distribution map of SOC showed that the spatial distribution of organic carbon content in each occurrence layer was generally increasing from north to south. We also found that there were some differences in the driving factors of SOC content in different profiles of the occurrence layer. In the A genetic horizon, soil texture, and bulk density were the most important factors affecting SOC content; as the depth of the soil layer increased, the influence of topographic factors and soil texture gradually strengthened on the accumulation of SOC content in the B genetic horizon. For the Parent material, the influence of soil texture, topographic factors, and bulk density were all more influential on the SOC content.【Conclusion】Soil texture is the main factor driving the spatial distribution characteristics of SOC in Anhui Province, but the effects of topographic factors and bulk density should also be fully considered in the subsequent development of SOC control measures, to provide theoretical support for improving soil quality and coping with climate change.

      • Adsorption and Passivation Mechanisms of Cadmium and Arsenic Contamination in Water and Soil Environments by Silico-Ferric Modified Biochar

        LI Shiyi, RU Dongzhou, FANG Youtian, TIAN Xin, LIAN Bin, ZHAO Keli, LI Zhangtao, WU Jizi

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307150277


        【Objective】The coexistence of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) in soil and water has emerged as a critical global environmental concern due to the significant risks it poses to human health through the food chain. To address this pressing issue, a novel silicon-iron modified biochar (CMSMB) was developed using a co-precipitation-physical mixing method.【Method】The study aimed to comprehensively investigate the remediation capabilities and underlying mechanisms of CMSMB through a series of batch experiments and soil incubation trials in environments contaminated by both Cd and As.【Result】In batch experiments, CMSMB exhibited an impressive maximum adsorption capacity of 272.73 and 17.59 mg?g-1 for Cd(Ⅱ) and As(Ⅲ), respectively. The adsorption processes on the CMSMB surface were intricate, involving a simultaneous interplay of antagonistic and synergistic interactions, and the relative strengths of these interactions were found to be controlled by the concentrations of Cd(Ⅱ) and As(Ⅲ) in the solution. The antagonistic effect primarily originated from the competitive binding of Cd(Ⅱ) and As(Ⅲ) to hydroxyl and aromatic rings. Conversely, the synergistic effect relied on electrostatic adsorption, Cd-As co-precipitation, and the formation of ternary surface complexes. Soil incubation experiments conducted over 20 days revealed significant positive outcomes. The application of CMSMB led to a substantial increase in soil pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. Consequently, there was a noteworthy decrease (ranging from 64.86% to 74.25%) in the concentration of available Cd in the soil. These changes were attributed to the impact of electrostatic adsorption, precipitation, and complexation resulting from the intricate interplay between CMSMB and alterations in the soil physicochemical properties. However, in the short-term soil incubation, CMSMB exhibited a negligible influence on the bioavailability of As in the soil. The concentration of bioavailable As showed only a slight decline with increasing incubation time which suggests that the remediation effect of CMSMB on As in co-contaminated soils may require a longer duration for observable impacts.【Conclusion】In summary, CMSMB emerges as a potent environmental agent with remarkable efficacy in remediating water contaminated by Cd(Ⅱ) and As(Ⅲ) co-contamination. Furthermore, it demonstrates the ability to passivate Cd in co-contaminated soils, leading to a substantial reduction in the bioavailable Cd. However, its influence on the bioavailability of As in the soil during short-term application appears to be limited. CMSMB demonstrates applicability in the remediation of farmland soils and wastewater contaminated with cadmium and arsenic, found in sources such as mining tailings and agricultural irrigation. However, its long-term remediation capacity, encompassing migration, transformation, and microbiological mechanisms, requires further in-depth exploration and validation.

      • The Microbial Diversity of Reclaimed Soil Drives Its Multifunctional Variation in the Eastern Plain Mining Area

        MA Jing, HUA Ziyi, YOU Yunnan, ZHU Yanfeng, ZHNAG Qi, CHEN Fu

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202401010001


        【Objective】Land reclamation is a significantly important way to restore soil productivity in high groundwater mining areas. However, most of the reclaimed soil always shows poor functions, such as lower fertility and biodiversity, while the in-depth understanding of microbiological mechanisms underlying the formation and restoration of multifunctional reclaimed soil is still deficient. 【Method】Four reclamation plots including 9 years, 12 years, 15 years, and 18 years of reclamation, and 1 control plot from the Dongtan mining area in Zoucheng City, Shandong Province, were selected as the research objects. A total of 75 surface soil samples were collected, and 18 soil physical, chemical, and biological indicators such as organic carbon were measured to explore the interaction between soil microbial communities and soil multifunctionality, as well as the microbiological mecha-nisms of multifunctionality variation. Moreover, based on the molecular ecological network methods, supplemented by statistical analysis methods, several microbial networks were constructed to investigate the interaction between microbial community di-versity, network structure, and soil multifunctionality. 【Result】 The results showed that: (1) Land reclamation activities and the normal vegetation rotation of the cultivated land have significantly improved soil multifunctionality, with soil multifunctionality almost reaching the undisturbed control level after 18 years of reclamation. Moreover, among the soil properties, soil organic carbon, pH, available phosphorous, and most enzyme activities were important influencing factors for multifunctionality. (2) With the increasing reclamation years, soil microbial diversity significantly increased, while the richness performance of bacteria and fungi was different. The increasing trend of bacteria was not significant after 12 years of reclamation whereas fungi in-creased significantly until 18 years of reclamation. However, the abundance of bacteria and fungi reached normal farmland lev-els after 15 years and 18 years of reclamation, respectively. (3) The analysis results of the microbial co-occurrence network showed that the nodes, edges, average degree, average path length, network density, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality in the bacterial community co-occurrence network significantly increased with the increase of reclamation time. More-over, the topological properties of bacterial and fungal subnetworks such as edge, degree, and network density were signifi-cantly positively correlated with soil multifunctional properties. The diversity of microbial communities showed a positive im-pact on the network complexity, enhancing the association between species and thereby enhancing their versatility. Both the complexities of bacterial and fungal community networks presented significant correlations with soil multifunctionality. The impact of bacterial network complexity on soil multifunctionality was not affected by other indicators, whereas the correlation between fungal network complexity and soil multifunctionality was influenced by bacterial richness, soil microbial diversity, and fungal richness. The structural equation model results indicated that microbial diversity can directly and positively regulate soil multifunctionality, or indirectly manipulate soil multifunctionality by positively influencing the network complexity of bacteria and fungi.【Conclusion】 This study has revealed the driving mechanism of multifunctional restoration of reclaimed soil in the eastern plain mining area, which would provide important guidance for the deeper understanding of the development and func-tional succession of reclaimed soil microbiota, as well as soil quality management and protection.

      • Effects of Biochar on Red Soil Nematode Community Characteristics under Chemical Fertilizer Reduction

        CHENG Liuzhu, ZHU Baijing, CHENG Yanhong, WAN Bingbing, LIU Ting, TAO Yiheng, CHEN Xiaoyun, HU Feng, LIU Manqiang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311120469


        [Objective] The approach of reducing chemical fertilizer usage while increasing the application of organic materials is a common strategy for maintaining optimal crop yields and preserving soil ecological functions. Biochar, as a carbon-rich, alkaline, and porous byproduct produced from biomass pyrolysis, has great potential in soil biodiversity restoration and soil health improvement in acidic red soil areas. [Method] This study conducted a 2×3 full factorial interactive design experiment in red soil cultivated with sweet potato-rapeseed in subtropical arid areas. The experiment involved the application of organic materials (control without organic material application, straw, and biochar) and two fertilizer application rates (full dose of NPK fertilizer and reduced dose of 60% NPK fertilizer), totaling six treatments. The aim was to investigate the impact of biochar application on nematode communities in upland red soils and to understand the underlying mechanisms after five years of application. [Result] The results indicated that under full chemical fertilizer application, the use of biochar significantly increased the abundance of bacterivores and the ratio of microbivores to herbivores, reduced the root-to-shoot ratio of sweet potatoes and soil soluble organic carbon, and increased soil mineral nitrogen. Under reduced chemical fertilizer application, compared to the control and straw application, biochar significantly increased the abundance of total nematode, bacterivorous, herbivorous, and omnivorous predators. Simultaneously, it increased the sweet potato root biomass, root-to-shoot ratio, and soil pH but significantly decreased soil mineral nitrogen. By analyzing the relationship between soil nematode communities and plant growth as well as soil properties, it was evident that the application of biochar in combination with reduced chemical fertilizer led to a reduction in soil nutrient availability, thus nutrient limitation prompted plants to allocate more photosynthetic products below ground, resulting in increased crop root biomass and the abundance of herbivores. [Conclusion] This study suggests that under the background of reducing chemical fertilizer and increasing the application of organic materials in China, soil fertilization practices combining biochar application with reduced chemical fertilizer should take into comprehensive consideration the potential adverse effects of nutrient deficiency on crop growth.

      • Effect and Mechanism of Polystyrene on the Co-transport of Copper and Soil Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

        GONG Jiaqi, DONG Yanan, XU Shaohui, LIN Qing

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202401150028


        【Objective】The ubiquitous colloidal substances in the environment profoundly affect the transport and transformation of pollutants in soil and groundwater. The impact of microplastics, as an emerging pollutant, on the transport of colloids and colloid-associated pollutants is still unclear. 【Method】Therefore, column experiments were conducted in saturated quartz sand, with polystyrene (PS) microplastics as the research object. By combining with sedimentation experiments, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and other methods, the influencing mechanisms of microplastics on soil colloid, copper (Cu2+), and their co-transport were investigated. 【Result】The results showed that PS facilitated the transport of soil colloids through mechanisms involving heterogeneous aggregation with soil colloids, competition for surface sites on quartz sand, and steric hindrance. This promotional effect was more pronounced in the presence of Cu2+. In comparison to soil colloid, the effect of PS on Cu2+ migration was not obvious due to its low concentration as well as low adsorption capacity. In the presence of PS, 83.47% of Cu2+ was transported in dissolved form, while 35.25% of Cu2+ was transported in colloidal form under the effluence of soil colloid. PS enhanced the mobility of soil colloids, but it concurrently reduced the adsorption of Cu2+ and facilitated the transport of dissolved Cu2+ compared to the scenario with only soil colloids. However, PS did not have a significant impact on the effluent concentration of total Cu. Furthermore, the mobility of PS was also influenced by soil colloids and Cu2+. 【Conclusion】 In general, microplastics in the soil environment not only directly interact with Cu2+, but also alter the properties of soil colloids. Changes in colloidal properties may be the primary reason for the impact of microplastics on the environmental behavior of Cu.

      • Methods of Filling in Bulk Density Gaps of Cropland Topsoil in The Sichuan Basin

        LI Aiwen, LI Wendan, SONG Liangying, RAN Min, CHEN Dan, CHEN Jinli, QI Haoran, GUO Conghui, LI Qiquan

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311270498


        【Objective】This study aimed to construct a high precision prediction method for soil bulk density to accurately complete the regional soil attribute database.【Method】Based on the data of 2,883 typical cropland samples in the Sichuan Basin (including Sichuan Province and Chongqing Municipality) obtained during the second national soil census, this study used correlation analysis, variance analysis, and regression analysis to reveal the statistical characteristics and main controlling factors of the cropland topsoil bulk density in the Sichuan Basin. The traditional pedotransfer functions (PTFs), multiple linear regression (MLR) models, radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model, and random forest (RF) models were used to establish a soil bulk density prediction model through three modeling methods: whole region, by river basin and by soil type, to fill the missing value of soil bulk density.【Result】The results show that the cropland topsoil bulk density in the study area ranged from 0.60 to 1.71 g·cm-3, with a mean value of 1.29 g·cm-3. Soil organic matter, soil subgroup, and rainfall in summer were the most important factors influencing bulk density. The RBFNN model constructed by the river basin can better capture the nonlinear relationship between soil bulk density and the influencing factors and the spatial non-stationarity of this relationship. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the 432 independent validation samples were 0.519 and 0.095 g·cm-3, respectively, which were significantly better than those of other methods.【Conclusion】Therefore, the RBFNN prediction model constructed in sub-basin is helpful to improve the imputation accuracy of the missing values of topsoil bulk density in the Sichuan Basin, and also provides a method reference for the imputation of missing values of soil properties in other regions.

      • Screening of Indigenous Microbial Helpers for the Chlorpyrifos-degrading Bacterium Shingopyxis granuli CP-2

        LI Mei, WANG Zhongyang, JING Lili, HOU Yugang, MA Liya, SHENG Hongjie, YU Xiangyang†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311200486


        【Objective】Chlorpyrifos residue poses a significant challenge to food safety. Microbial degradation which is called bioaugmentation is an effective approach for the elimination of such residues. Bioaugmentation often involves an invasion process requiring the establishment and activity of a foreign microbe in the resident community of the target environment. Interactions with resident micro-organisms, either antagonistic or cooperative, are believed to impact invasion. However, few studies have examined how the interactions between the invaded degrading bacteria and resident microorganisms in the target environment can influence microbial degradation. In this study, chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria Shingopyxis granuli CP-2 was used as material, from the perspective of microbe-microbe interactions, to select resident bacterial helper of CP-2. 【Method】Soils from the field were first collected, a batch of bacteria from the soil was isolated by continuous dilution method, and identified by full-length sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of all isolates were aligned using MUSCLE. Sequences in the alignment were trimmed at both ends to obtain maximum overlap using the MEGA X software, which was also used to construct taxonomic cladograms. A maximum-likelihood (ML) tree was constructed, using a general time reversible (GTR) + G + I model, which yielded the best fit to our data set. Bootstrapping was carried out with 100 replicates retaining gaps. A taxonomic cladogram was created using the EVOLVIEW web tool (https://evolgenius.info//evolview-v2/). The taxonomic status (phylum) of each rhizobacterial strain was also added as heatmap rings to the outer circle of the tree. The resident bacterial helper which could promote the growth of CP-2 was then screened by supernatant assay from the isolates isolated from soils, and the bioinformatics results of these helpers were analyzed. At last, a bacterial isolate which well promoted the growth of CP-2 was chosen, and its effect on CP-2""s ability to degrade chlorpyrifos was investigated in vitro. 【Result】109 strains of indigenous bacteria were isolated and were classified into four main phyla: Proteobacteria (54.1%), Actinobacteria (14.8%), Firmicutes (15.6%), and Bacteroidetes (15.6%). Among them, 41.3% significantly inhibited the growth of CP-2, 17.4% had no significant effect on CP-2, and 41.3% (45 bacterial strains) significantly enhanced CP-2""s growth and were identified as indigenous bacterial helpers of CP-2. The 45 bacterial strains in the helper bank mainly belong to 3 phyla, 4 classes, 7 orders, 13 families and 20 genera. One strain (B72), which exhibited a strong growth-promoting effect on CP-2 was selected to assess its impact on chlorpyrifos degradation by CP-2. The results demonstrated that both the bacterial strain B72 and its supernatant significantly promoted the chlorpyrifos degrading ability of CP-2. 【Conclusion】Together, the strains identified in this study provide valuable resources for future research and applications involving microbial degradation of soil toxicants such as chlorpyrifos or other pollutants. Furthermore, the indigenous bacterial helper of chlorpyrifos degrading bacterium CP-2 significantly promoted its ability to degrade chlorpyrifos, which offers theoretical guidance and technical support for potential co-inoculation strategies involving both chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria and indigenous bacterial helpers aimed at pollution remediation.

      • Progress of Survey, Monitoring, and Control Technology of Benggang Erosion in Red Soil Hilly Area

        DENG Yusong, CAI Chongfa

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202312120526


        Benggang is aunique type of soil erosion in the south of China, which refers to the erosion phenomenon of collapse and scouring of the hillside damaged by the combined action of hydraulic force and gravity. Bengngang erosion is an advanced stage of gully development and is a permanent gully that cannot be filled in by farming practices. Benggang mainly occurs in the southern granite hill region which is mostly agricultural production, and its harmful effects are serious, destroying land resources, affecting agricultural production, and seriously impeding the coordinated and sustainable socio-economic development. Due to the complexity of the factors involved in the formation of Benggang, the knowledge of the mechanism and the management measures are still being explored. The objective of this study was to identify the current status of soil erosion in the region by outlining the survey methods of Benggang erosion, to obtain basic information on Benggang erosion, and to provide a scientific and theoretical basis for the development of soil and water conservation measures. Specifically, this study detailed the methodology, content, and purpose of individual Benggang surveys, and through this process grasped the basic characteristics of Benggang erosion. Subsequently, the methodology of investigating the regional influencing factors of the Benggang was introduced, which mainly includes the main influencing factors of the Benggang, such as geological geomorphology, climatic conditions, soil parent material, vegetation, and anthropogenic activities. Based on the investigation, this study also compiles the monitoring techniques of the Benggang used in recent years, combining the traditional manual methods with emerging technologies to truly and efficiently grasp the distribution characteristics, influencing factors and erosion development trend. Then, the research progress on the risk assessment and prediction methods of Benggang was reviewed to objectively assess the losses or impacts caused by Benggang disasters and to explore preventive and control measures. Finally, existing measures and models for the prevention and control of Benggang are discussed based on the survey of basic information on Benggang, field monitoring methods and risk assessment and prediction studies. Our investigation shed light on the current situation of erosion and the prediction of the development trend of Benggang, which is of great significance to the prevention and control of erosion in the Benggang region in China. The contents of the review in this study also assist in providing a basis for methods of investigation in the same erosion types, which can be generalized to the research of soil erosion in regions with similar geomorphology.

      • Functional Compensatory Assembly of Rhizosphere Microbiome: Concept, Content, and Outlook

        XUN Weibing, ZHANG Ruifu, SHEN Qirong

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202310140417


        The rhizosphere microbiome can strongly promote plant growth and health by increasing nutrient availability, enhancing plant stress tolerance, and improving disease resistance. It has become an important pathway to support the development of green agriculture to fully exploit the plant-beneficial functions of the rhizosphere microbiome. Therefore, there is a great need to systematically investigate the assembly processes and functional and regulation mechanisms of the rhizosphere microbiome, to enhance the ecosystem service functionality and promote the productivity, quality, and nutrient use efficiency of crops. Plants have the capability of recruiting specific functional microbes that are advantageous for their growth under diverse environmental conditions. As such, a fundamental correlation presents between the functional requirements of plants to adapt to environmental stresses and the functional features of the rhizosphere microbiome. We defined this trait, of which the rhizosphere microbiome-derived specific functions compensate the functional requirements of the host plant, as the “functional compensatory assembly” of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this review, we introduced this concept in four stages: (1) the development and current status of rhizosphere microbiome assembly concept, (2) the structural features and impacting factors of rhizosphere microbiome, (3) the functional characteristics of rhizosphere microbiome and their mechanisms in promoting plant growth, and (4) the concept and intension of functional compensatory assembly of rhizosphere microbiome. Firstly, three models of “two-step selection”, “multistep selection”, and “amplification selection” have been proposed to describe the compositional assembly process of the rhizosphere microbiome. These models demonstrate that the rhizosphere microbiome assembly process is a selective enrichment process of the soil microbiome under rhizodeposition. Secondly, it has been established that the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome is primarily influenced by soil properties and plant genotypes. Presently, there is a growing interest in identifying and clarifying the crucial host genes that can regulate the colonization of specific microbial taxa through microbiome genome-wide association studies (mGWAS) between the host plant’s genetic and the rhizosphere microbiome. Thirdly, the interaction between the rhizosphere functional microbes and the host plant under various environmental conditions has been extensively researched. Briefly, plant recruits specific functional microbes in the rhizosphere by releasing specific exudates, while enriched functional microbes can also promote the plants’ resistance to environmental stress through diverse approaches. Finally, the concept of the functional compensation assembly of rhizosphere microbiome was introduced. We elaborated on the content of functional compensation assembly, covering its condition and object, process and mechanism, regulation, and application strategy. To summarize, we highlighted the potential for enhancing resource utilization efficiency and promoting crop growth and health by increasing the functional compensation ability of the rhizosphere microbiome. However, although our fundament research achievement is growing exponentially, there is much to study before fully exploiting the plant beneficial functions of the rhizosphere microbiome. We encourage exploration of the mechanisms of functional compensation and exploit strategies of rhizosphere microbiome, improve the theoretical framework of the functional compensation assembly, and incorporate it into the soil quality assessment and diagnosis system. This review could present a theoretical basis to enhance the efficiency of resource utilization and crop productivity, hence providing new insights for promoting the green transition of agriculture.

      • Mineralization Characteristics of Mineral-Associated Organic Carbon in Citrus Orchards Soil Aggregates at Different Slope Positions

        TANG Kaizhao, ZHANG Junyao, WU Cong, WANG Shuai, LIAO Wenjuan, YIN Lichu, ZHOU Weijun, CUI Haojie

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311170478


        【Objective】Mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) is the most important of soil organic carbon (SOC), and its mineralization characteristics have an important impact on soil carbon sequestration and global climate change. As an important topographic factor, slope position significantly affects the interaction and stability of organic carbon and soil minerals. However, the influence of slope positions on mineralization characteristics of MAOC in soils is not fully understood. 【Method】In this study, typical citrus orchard soils at different slope positions were sampled, and the aggregates with sizes of >2, 2~0.25, 0.25~0.053, and <0.053 mm were obtained by physical fractionation. Moreover, the MAOC in aggregates were separated to investigate the mineralization characteristics of MAOC at varying slope positions (upper slope, middle slope, and lower slope) through indoor cultivation. The influence of soil physicochemical factors and hydrophobicity on MAOC mineralization was analyzed by Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Redundancy analysis (RDA), and Hierarchical partitioning analysis. 【Result】The results showed that the cumulative mineralization (Ct), mineralization rate and potential mineralization (Co) of MAOC in citrus orchard soil at lower slopes were significantly higher than those at upper and middle slopes, but the ratio of Co/MAOC at lower slope was significantly lower compared with upper and middle slopes. With the decrease in aggregate size, the Ct, mineralization rate, and Co of MAOC in citrus orchard soil at each slope position showed an upward trend, while the mineralization intensity of MAOC gradually weakened. RDA results showed that the Co was significantly positively correlated with pH, SOC, MAOC, TN, and C/N (P<0.05), and significantly negatively correlated with iron and aluminum oxides (Fed/Ald, Feo/Alo, and Fep/Alp) and hydrophobicity (P<0.05). Co/MAOC was significantly positively correlated with iron and aluminum oxides and hydrophobicity, but significantly negatively correlated with Co, Ct, pH, SOC, MAOC, TN, and C/N. Hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that Alo, Alp, and Fep emerged as significant factors influencing the mineralization of MAOC. Variation decomposition analysis showed that the combined effects of Alo, Alp, Fep, C/N, MAOC, and Feo significantly affected MAOC mineralization in aggregates with different particle sizes at different slope positions. 【Conclusion】The slope positions have obvious effects on the mineralization characteristics of MAOC in aggregates in citrus orchard soils. The findings of this study are of great significance for understanding the formation mechanisms and stability of mineral-bound organic carbon in soil aggregates and in enhancing soil organic carbon sequestration in citrus orchards at different slope positions in hilly regions of southern China.

      • Study on the Removal Effect of Organic Material Varieties and Amended Amount on Excess Nitrate and Sulfate in Facility Soil

        ZHU Rui, DUAN Zengqiang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202305030168


        【Objective】Flooding and organic matter addition to anaerobic treatment has been proven to reduce excess salt in greenhouse soil and improve soil quality. There are many types of organic matter in the field, so how to select effective materials is a key problem. 【Method】Six types of organic materials with different carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) proportions were selected and tested at two rates of 2 g·kg?1and 8 g·kg?1. 【Result】Flooding and organic matter addition can quickly create a reducing environment for soil. On the first day of incubation, the redox potential (Eh) rapidly decreased to around 0 mV, accompanied by a rapid decline in soil electrical conductivity (EC), SO42?, and NO3??N. By the end of the anaerobic cultivation process, almost all NO3??N had been removed, and the variety and amount of organic matter added had no significant effect on NO3??N removal. The effect of rapeseed straw with low C/S ratio on SO42? removal was weak, with a removal rate of 58%. A high C/S ratio maize straw can reduce SO42? from an initial concentration of 153 mg·kg?1 to 17 mg·kg?1, a decrease of 89%. Different amounts of added materials only affect the speed of SO42? removal, but not the final removal effect. At the end of cultivation, there was no significant difference in SO42? removal between treatments with 2 g·kg?1 and 8 g·kg?1 of organic matter added. The content of other forms of sulfur did not change significantly, indicating that most of the reduced SO42? was converted into organic sulfur. 【Conclusion】For the purpose of remediating excess SO42? in soil, it is recommended to use organic materials with high C/S such as maize straw and set the addition amount at 2 g·kg?1 to obtain good results.

      • Inhibition Mechanisms of Acidification Induced by Urea Application Using Organic Carbon Sources with Different Availability for Microorganisms in Ultisol

        GUAN Peng, WANG Ruhai, SHI Renyong, Li Jiuyu, XU Renkou

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308140323


        【Objective】 This study investigated the mechanism of different organic carbon (C) sources to control fertilizer nitrogen (N) transformation and its induced soil acidification. 【Method】 Four types of organic C sources (glucose, sodium benzoate, cellulose, and lignin) with different availability for microorganisms were selected for a 45-day indoor incubation experiment. It was conducted under the condition that the C/N ratio of C source and fertilizer (urea) was 40. The effects were analyzed for the combined application of organic C source and urea on N transformation and soil acidity in Ultisol. 【Result】 The results showed that intensive nitrification occurred when urea was used solely in Ultisol, resulting in a soil pH decrease of 1.17 pH units at the end of the incubation. Compared with the sole application of urea, the combined application of organic C sources and urea significantly enhanced soil respiration, and decreased soil inorganic N by 17.1%-99.4% and soil NO3--N by 46.1%-99.9%. However, these organic treatments increased soil microbial biomass N and solid organic N (non-extractable N) by 3.0%-14.8%, and increased soil pH by 0.67-3.11 pH units. These findings suggest that the combined application of organic C sources and N fertilizer promoted the immobilization of fertilizer N by soil microorganisms and soil N sequestration, thereby significantly reducing nitrification and soil acidification induced by N fertilizer. Specifically, as a labile organic C source, glucose facilitated the rapid immobilization of fertilizer N by microorganisms in the early stage and the mineralization of organic N in the later stage. It indicated that glucose could play a role in temporary storage and slow release of fertilizer N in the soil. Cellulose was less easily utilized by microorganisms and also promoted microbial immobilization of fertilizer N. Although cellulose was not as fast as glucose, it had strong immobilization capacity and high C use efficiency, which was conducive to the long-term immobilization of fertilizer N in the soil. Lignin, a resistant organic C source, weakly promoted microbial immobilization of fertilizer N but directly inhibited nitrification. The mentioned C sources regulated the N transformation process and increased the soil pH by approximately 0.6 pH units. Sodium benzoate, as a labile organic acid salt, reduced nitrification directly by inhibiting nitrification and indirectly by promoting microbial N immobilization, although the microbial immobilization of fertilizer N was significantly lower than that of glucose and cellulose. Decarboxylation of sodium benzoate rapidly consumed a substantial amount of H+ and significantly increased the soil pH by approximately 3.0 pH units. 【Conclusion】 The chemical properties of organic C sources, including the complexity of their chemical structure, microbial availability, microbial C use efficiency, and microbial toxicity, are the main factors affecting the transformation process of soil C and N, and consequent soil acidification. The findings obtained in this study provide significant theoretical support for the effective and sustainable management of soil nutrients and acidity in cropland.

      • Effects of Dazomet Fumigation and Reductive Soil Disinfestation on Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Farmland Soil

        YU Wenhao, LI Shu, LIN Yulan, ZHANG Jingqing, XU Chenwei, LIU Liangliang, ZHANG Jinbo, CAI Zucong, ZHAO Jun

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309100369


        [Objective] The prevalence and dissemination of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in farmland soils have become a major threat to food security and human health. However, there is still no effective method to remediate ARGs-contaminated farmland soil. Chemical fumigation and reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) are widely used to kill soil-borne pathogens in agricultural production, but it is still unknown whether they are capable of reducing the abundance of ARGs in ARGs-enriched soil. [Method] In this study, an ARGs-enriched farmland soil due to long-term application of chicken manure was selected, and soil incubation experiment with seven treatments: CK (control without soil treatment), FCK (maximum water holding capacity treatment), DZ (chemical fumigation with 0.02% dazomet), and RSD with 1% ethanol (ET, TOC: 521.7 g·kg-1), alfalfa (AL, TOC: 454.9 g·kg-1, C/N: 21.2), molasses (MO, TOC: 270.1 g·kg-1, C/N: 12.6) and the mixture of alfalfa and molasses (AM, m/m=1:1), were conducted to investigate the shifts in absolute abundance and relative abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) via real-time PCR. The effects of different treatments on soil ARGs and MGEs were evaluated by reduction rate. [Result] Results showed that RSD treatment could decrease the relative abundance of aadA21, msrE, tetG, tetM, and ErmF genes, with the reduction of the aadA21 gene in relative abundance being 50.5%~58.3% in AL-, MO-, and AM-treated soils, while the relative abundances of msrE, tetG and tetM genes were significantly lowered by ET treatment, with the reduction rate being as high as 80.9%, 78.3%, and 66.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, RSD treatment could significantly decrease the relative abundance of MGEs (IS6100 and IS26 gene), with the reduction rate being 67.7%~74.3% and 38.1%~42.6%, respectively. In addition, the relative abundances of ARGs and MGEs were slightly increased in DZ treatment, with the increasing rate of ARGs and IS26 gene being 21.9% and 42.6%, respectively. [Conclusion] Collectively, RSD treatment can decrease soil ARGs contamination by reducing the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs, limiting the horizontal transfer ability of ARGs, and the reduction effect is related to the type of organic materials used. Moreover, RSD treatment is more effective in reducing the relative abundance of ARGs and MGEs than dazomet fumigation and has the potential for rapid remediation of ARGs-contaminated soil.

      • Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon Fraction Accumulation and Stability under Different Rice-rape Rotation Measures

        SHU Yeqin, PENG Fuxi, LEI Wenshuo, JIANG Tongtong, CHEN Yumei, LIU Weimin, ZHANG Zhenhua, XIA Yinhang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311030452


        Rape multiple-cropping is an important planting mode to promote grain stabilization and rapeseed increase in South China rice growing area. We explored the influence of soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and its stability characteristics under different rice-rape rotation measures with whole-straw returning, which is of great significance for in-depth analysis of soil carbon cycle in paddy fields by making full use of winter fallow fields to plant rape. This study is based on an 8-year yield localization experiment. In contrast with rice-rice-winter fallow, we explored the characteristics of SOC and its fraction accumulation under three rice-rape rotation treatments: rice-rice-rape, rice-rape-tillage, and rice-rape-no tillage. The results indicated that the content of SOC in 0~20 cm soil layer was increased by 5.28%~25.12% under the three rice-rape rotation treatments, especially under the rice-rice-rape treatment. Also, the increasing rate of SOC in 20~40 cm soil layer was 18.48%~43.97%, among which the rice-rape-tillage and the rice-rape-no tillage treatment reached a significant level. Except for rice-rape-tillage treatment in 0~20 cm soil layer, the content of mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC) from all the rice-rape rotation measures was increased significantly in different soil layers. At the same time, the ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to SOC was significantly decreased while the ratio of MAOC to SOC increased in each treatment from both 0~20 cm and 20~40 cm soil layer. The increasing rate of MAOC/SOC were 2.31%~7.49% and 1.56 %~2.66% in the two soil layers, respectively. Possible causes of these results may be that rice-rape rotation increased the activity of organic carbon invertase enzyme (β-glucosidase、β-1,4-glucanase and Laccase) as well as microbial biomass carbon in 0~20 cm soil layer to varying degrees, thereby promoting the conversion of POC to MAOC. In summary, rape multiple-cropping in winter fallow not only promoted the accumulation of SOC in paddy field, but also increased the ratio of MAOC/SOC, ultimately enhancing the stability of soil carbon pool.

      • Alterations with Plantation Years of Fructus aurantii on Rhizosphere Microbiome and Soil Properties

        Weiwei WU, Xue HAN, Jipeng WANG, Nianxi SUN, Yong LI

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308140224


        【Objectives】Rhizosphere microorganisms affect the availability and transformation of soil nutrients, which are closely related to the growth and health of plants. Changes in rhizosphere microorganisms with plantation years of Fructus aurantii were studied for better field F. aurantii management. 【Methods】The rhizosphere soil samples of F. aurantii planted for 4 (Y4), 20 (Y20), and 40 (Y40) years in Chongqing were collected on 2020. The changes in diversity index and community composition structure of bacteria and fungi were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the correlation between rhizosphere microbial community composition (bacteria and fungal) and soil properties was explored.【Results】Soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), available N (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK), except pH, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Y40 than those under Y4 and Y20. The Shannon and Pielou indices of fungi were significantly increased with the increase in plantation age (P < 0.05), while those of bacteria had no significant changes. The principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) indicated that the rhizosphere bacterial and fungal community structures under Y40 significantly differed from those under Y4 and Y20. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria phyla were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes, and their total relative abundance accounted for 61.07~87.79%. Also the dominant fungal phyla were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota which accounted for 64.70-85.75%. At the genus level, the abundance of beneficial bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil under Y40 was significantly lower than those under Y4 (P < 0.05). For example, the abundance of Sphingomonas, Ochrobactrum, Nocardioides, Pseudomonas, Trichosporon and Chaetomium were decreased by 51.21%, 91.32%, 78.60%, 81.87%, 70.58% and 60.74%, respectively. Furthermore, the abundance of pathogenic genera including Fusarium, Plectosphaerella and Ilyonectria, were significantly increased by 117.6%, 323.9% and 1631% under Y40 compared to Y4 (P < 0.05), respectively. The mantel analysis showed that soil pH and nutrient availability were the important abiotic factors influencing the composition of bacterial and fungal communities under different F. Aurantii planation years. 【Conclusions】 Long-term plantation of F. Aurantii altered soil bacterial and fungal community structures. Specifically, the fungal diversity index and the abundance of pathogenic fungi increased, while the abundance of beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere soil decreased. These alterations were the main reasons for inducing an aggravation of the related disease and then a worse plant growth with the increasing age of F. Aurantii plantation.

      • Culture Media and Generations Influence Diversity Assessment of Soil Culturable Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria

        XIA Weiwei, ZHANG Zelin, ZOU Mengmeng, Cirenlamu, CHEN Xiaofen, SUN Xiangxin, Wang Yufang, JIA Zhongjun

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202306130113


        【Objective】High-throughput sequencing technology was used to study the changes in the diversity of culturable phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) during serial enrichment, to evaluate the effects of different media and generations on diversity assessment of culturable PSB in paddy soil.【Methods】Through serial passages with inorganic phosphorus medium (IPM) and organic phosphorus medium (OPM) in both solid and liquid forms, culturable "potential" PSB enrichments were obtained from the first (1st-En), second (2nd-En) and third (3rd-En) generation of the media and then for DNA extraction together with the tested soil. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology to explore the enrichment laws of soil culturable "potential" PSB and their proportions to soil background indigenous bacterial community.【Results】The results showed that a total of 58 phyla, 160 classes, 373 orders, 575 families and 979 genera were detected in soil background bacterial communities, and 20 phyla, 35 orders, 80 orders, 121 families and 223 genera of the "potential" PSB were cultured by four media after three generations. The diversity of culturable "potential" PSB was generally higher in OPM than IPM and the proportions of culturable "potential" PSB in soil background indigenous bacterial community were the highest at the phylum level (8.62%~25.9%), while only 3.22%~12.5% at other taxonomic levels. Compared with the database of "the known PSB" constructed in this study, 110 genera of "the known PSB" existed in soil background indigenous bacterial community; 83 genera of "the known PSB" were existed in the enrichments of four media after three consecutive generations and accounting for 75.5% of "the known PSB" in the background soil. Thus, at least about 24.5% of the genera of "the known PSB" in the soil were not enriched or omitted. During the culture of three generations with different media, the culturable dominant PSB mainly included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes, and their relative abundance reached a total of 97.20~99.97%; at the genus level, PSB with different physiological and metabolic characteristics was enriched by different media and generations. In addition, a large number of 140 genera were also enriched in which phosphorus-dissolving function or characteristic genes were not demonstrated, accounting for 62.8% of soil culturable "potential" PSB communities. Most of the above genera were rare with relatively low abundance, but a few have growth advantages, such as Chelatococcus.【Conclusion】Combining the high-throughput sequencing technology with the traditional microbial culture technology, our study reveals that the diversity of soil culturable PSB can be strongly affected by the components and status of culture medium and the generations, which provides a reference for the directional exploration and research of environmental PSB resources.

      • Study on Rapid Survey and Prediction Methods of Multi-Point Black Soil Layer Thickness Reflecting Micro-Spatial Variability of Sample Points

        GAO Zhang, MA Lixia, YU Dongsheng, HU Wenyou, LI Decheng, GAO Lei, LIU Feng, ZHANG J iuming, JIANG Jun, KUANG Enjun, WANG Xin, SONG Jie, WANG Tong, DING Qixun, WANG Changkun, CHI Fengqin, ZHAO Yuguo

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308210333


        【Objective】As an important indicator of soil quality, black soil layer thickness plays an irreplaceable role in sustainable soil development, food security and ecological functions. However, analyses based on soil profile survey data are often based on small sample sizes and small regional scales, and most of them are based on point data statistics only. However, the studies lacked spatial variability prediction analyses, hence, there is an urgent need for rapid surveys of the thickness of the black soil layer and high-performance spatial prediction methods.【Method】In this paper, a series of sample data of black soil thickness at 357 sample points in Heilongjiang Province were obtained by the rapid acquisition method of "shallow excavation + deep soil drilling" for black soil thickness at multiple burrows in newly constructed sample points. The spatial variability of black soil thickness and its uncertainty were predicted through the optimisation of parameters of the Random Forest Prediction Model (RPFPM). The impacts of the different burrow observations and their mean samples on the optimization of the model"s prediction accuracy and stability were analyzed, and the spatial prediction potentials of the model were evaluated.【Result】The predicted average thickness of the black soil layer in the arable land in the study area was 53.42 cm, and the new method of rapid acquisition and prediction of black soil layer thickness was effective and can be used as an alternative to the profiling method. The spatial variation explanatory power R2 of the optimized random forest model for predicting black soil thickness reached 60%, which could finely depict the spatial differentiation of black soil thickness. Also, the randomness of a single observation burrow at a sample point could change the importance value of the covariates predicted by the model, and even affect the spatial prediction of the distribution pattern of the black soil thickness. Compared with the spatial prediction on the mean value of several observations, the spatial prediction on a single observation had lower accuracy for uncertainty assessment of the spatial distribution and significantly reduced prediction performance. Interestingly, the cross-validation metrics and scatterplot analyses indicated that the optimized Random Forest model had a stable spatial prediction potential of the black soil thickness.【Conclusion】This study provides a new perspective and new ways for high-precision and rapid investigation and prediction of black soil layer thickness.

      • Effect of Aluminum Oxides on the Activation of Aluminum During Phyllosilicate Minerals and Red Soil Acidification

        LI Kewei, XU Renkou

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311260497


        Phyllosilicate minerals and aluminum (Al) oxides are the main sources of Al activation in the soil acidification process and they are also active parts of soil chemical reactions. 【Objective】The phyllosilicate minerals in soils are usually tightly bound to Al oxides and organic matter. Therefore, Al mobilization during soil acidification should be affected by soil organic matter and Al oxides. However, the effect and mechanism of Al oxides on the activation of Al during phyllosilicate minerals and soil acidification are not well understood. 【Method】Since the mobilization of Al is very sensitive to changes in system pH, the pH of mineral and soil suspensions was precisely controlled by constant pH automatic potentiometric titrator in this study, and the effects of gibbsite on kaolinite and amorphous Al(OH)3 on Al mobilization during kaolinite and montmorillonite acidification were studied. In addition, the Al activation kinetics of two Al oxides and two phyllosilicate minerals at different pH were studied. Finally, a red soil developed from quaternary red clay was treated with Al coating, and the effect of Al coating on soil Al activation was studied. 【Result】Al coating treatment did not change the d values of the diffraction peaks for kaolinite and montmorillonite. However, the intensity of the diffraction peaks for the two minerals decreased. This can be attributed to the physical masking of Al oxides on the kaolinite and montmorillonite. The results showed that the gibbsite can promote the mobilization of Al during kaolinite acidification. The Al coating can inhibit the production of exchangeable Al and promote the activation of soluble Al during kaolinite acidification. For montmorillonite, amorphous Al(OH)3 was found to promote the production of exchangeable Al. The Elovich equation and the zero-order kinetic equation were used to fit the kinetic data, respectively. The results of Al mobilization kinetics of the four minerals showed that the release rate of Al followed the order: amorphous Al(OH)3 > montmorillonite > kaolinite > gibbsite. The releasing order of Al from montmorillonite, kaolinite and gibbsite was consistent with their weathering sequence. After red soil was treated with Al coating, the contents of exchangeable Al and soluble Al in the soil increased significantly when the soil was acidified to pH 4.3, and the increase of soluble Al was greater than that of exchangeable Al. This is consistent with the result of Al-coated kaolinite, mainly because the main clay mineral in the soil was kaolinite. The increase in exchangeable Al was mainly because some hydromica and vermiculite were also present in the soil.【Conclusion】 Therefore, Al oxides showed different effects on the mobilization of Al from different phyllosilicate minerals, which was mainly related to the nature of the minerals (e.g., 1:1 or 2:1 phyllosilicate minerals). The influence of Al oxides on Al mobilization in soils during soil acidification was mainly related to the type and content of clay minerals contained in the soils. The results of this study can provide evidence for elucidating the activation mechanism of soil Al and a reference for the inhibition of soil Al mobilization during soil acidification.

      • Effect of Soil Acid Reduction and Fertilizer Cultivation Under Conditioner Application: Meta-analysis Based on Acid Soil Improvement Studies in China

        MING Runting, WAN Fang, NA Liping, WU Haicheng, WANG Wei, TAN Wenfeng, WU Yupeng†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311050456


        【Objective】This study aimed to accurately evaluate the effect of soil conditioner application on acid reduction and fertilizer cultivation of acidic soils in China. 【Method】This study conducted a meta-analysis of 127 published literature, and identified the effects of acid soil conditioner application on soil acidity, soil fertility, and crop yield. 【Result】The results showed that the acid reduction effect of the conditioner in extremely acidic soil (pH≤4.5) was the best. After application, the soil pH increased by 14.39%, and the reduction rates of exchangeable Al and exchangeable acidity reached 68.61% and 69.90%. The pH and basicity of the conditioner itself were the main factors affecting the acid-lowering effect of the conditioner, among which the lime conditioner had the best effect. It was observed that the soil pH increased by 18% and the exchangeable acidity decreased by 75.81% after application. The nutrient content of the conditioner itself and the amount of the conditioner were the main factors affecting the soil fertility after the conditioner application and the application of organic fertilizer had the best effect on the improvement of soil available nitrogen and available phosphorus (60.16%, 135.30% respectively). Also, biochar amendments had the best effect on the improvement of soil-available potassium and organic matter (75.52% and 76.02%). The application of amendments can reduce soil acidity and increase soil fertility to increase production, and biochar amendments had the best effects of increasing production, reaching 78.23%.【Conclusion】For managing acidic soils, it is recommended to apply high pH and high alkalinity amendments such as lime and biochar. For acidic soils with low organic matter content, it is recommended to apply high-alkalinity organic fertilizer, biochar and other amendments while biochar and mineral amendments are recommended for acidic soils with high organic matter content. For weakly acidic soil, it is recommended to apply common organic fertilizer. Nevertheless, it is necessary to further strengthen research on the combined application of inorganic and organic amendments to obtain a better effect on acid soil improvement.

      • Research of Paddy Soil Dissolved Organic Matter Composition and its Binding Process with Cd2+

        LIANG Yihao, NI Caiying†, LI Yanliang, XIAO Luochang, JIAN Minfei

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202310180426


        【Objective】Cadmium (Cd) is the heavy metal pollutant with the highest over-limit rate in paddy soil in China. The bioavailability and mobility of Cd are affected by dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the soil. Paddy fields are important food production areas in China. As an important ecological agriculture mode in the rice industry, integrated planting and breeding of rice fields is of great significance to rural revitalization. The modification of paddy field environments and fishing can change DOM, but the complexation process between soil DOM and Cd2+ in paddy soil and during integrated planting and breeding of rice field process has not been clearly understood. 【Method】In this study, the complexation process between DOM and Cd2+ in rice-shrimp cultivation (RS) and rice monoculture (CK) systems was investigated using a comprehensive array of analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum (UV-Vis), 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), 2D correlation analysis (2D-COS), and the modified Stern-Volmer binding reaction model. Herein, RS was taken as an example of integrated planting and breeding of rice fields.【Result】The PARAFAC analysis showed that soil DOM components of RS and CK were similar, including 1 tryptophan(C1) and 3 humus components (C2, C3, C4). Compared with CK, the proportions of C2 and C4 in soil DOM of RS were lower, while C3 was higher, and C1 was not significantly different. The UV-vis spectrum showed that DOM absorbance in CK was higher than in RS, with the absorption peak mainly located at 200-230 nm. With the increase of Cd2+, the change of UV-vis spectrum and UV254 was significantly different between RS and CK. Synchronous fluorescence spectra and 2D-COS analysis showed that paddy soil DOM fluorescence intensity changed with the increase of Cd2+, three absorption peaks were found by synchronous fluorescence spectra in DOM of paddy soil, which were the peak of tryptophan at 270 nm and the humus peak at 310 nm and 370 nm, respectively. The binding order between soil DOM and Cd2+ in RS was humus (310 nm), tryptophan, and humus (375 nm) , respectively. However, in CK, the binding order was tryptophan, humus (375 nm), humus (310 nm). In the Stern-Volmer binding reaction model, the fluorescence intensity of C1 and C4 decreased with the increase of Cd2+, but the fluorescence intensity of C2 and C3 was unstable, which showed that the complexation of humus components C2 and C3 with Cd2+ had instability. This also led to the failure of fitting C2 and C3 in the model. The complexation constants lgK of C1 and C4 in the soil DOM of RS were 4.25 and 5.03, which were higher than in CK.【Conclusion】The soil DOM in RS and CK mainly consisted of humus and the material composition ratio of soil DOM in RS was different. The complex process of DOM and Cd2+ in paddy soil belonged to static quenching and the aromatic structure affected the stability of DOM and Cd2+ complexation. Also, RS influenced the binding ability of tryptophan and fulvic acid DOM to Cd2+ whereas the instability of the complexation of humus with Cd2+ and the complexation of C4 with Cd2+ can enhance the bioavailability of Cd in soil. The results of this research can provide a scientific reference for the study of soil Cd pollution mechanism and pollution prevention in paddy fields.

      • Study on the Relationship Between Total Nitrogen and Nitrogen Functional Microorganisms in Soil Aggregates Under Long-Term Conservation Tillage

        Wang Wei Yan, Shen Peng Fei, Zhang Hou Ping, Mo Fei, Wen Xiao Xia, Liao Yun Cheng

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307120214


        【Objective】Long-term tillage measures can significantly change the distribution of soil aggregates, microbial abundance, and total nitrogen storage in farmland. However, whether there is a correlation between these properties remains unclear. This study aimed to reveal the relationship between total nitrogen content and nitrogen functional microorganisms within different particle sizes aggregates under long-term conservation tillage in dry farming areas of the Loess Plateau.【Method】Based on the 10-year (2009-2020) long-term tillage experiment (conventional tillage: plow tillage, PT; conservation tillage: chisel plow tillage, CPT and zero tillage, ZT), the effects of long-term conservation tillage on the distribution of total nitrogen and its relationship with the abundance of functional genes (amoA-AOA, amoA-AOB, nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII ) within aggregates in dry farmland were studied.【Result】Long-term conservation tillage (CPT and ZT) significantly increased the mass percentage of mega-aggregates (> 2 mm ) and macro-aggregates (0.25 ~ 2 mm), while it decreased the mass percentage of micro-aggregates (< 0.25 mm). Compared with PT, long-term CPT and ZT treatments significantly decreased the soil nitrogen mineralization rate, nitrification potential, and denitrification potential but increased the total nitrogen content in the 0~20 cm soil layer by 53.4 % and 49.9 %, respectively. The total nitrogen contribution rate of macro-aggregates of CPT and ZT treatments increased by 16.2 % and 21.8 %, respectively. Using qPCR technology, it was found that CPT and ZT significantly increased the abundance of bacteria, fungi, and nitrogen functional genes (except amoA-AOB); and the abundance of fungi, nirS, and nosZI in macroaggregates was significantly higher than that in microaggregates and macroaggregates, while the abundance of nosZII gene showed the opposite trend. Mantel analysis showed that aggregate size, soil texture, mineral nitrogen content, sucrase activity, and urease activity were the key factors regulating the abundance of nitrogen-functional microorganisms within aggregates. Correlation analysis showed that the total nitrogen content in aggregate soil was positively correlated with MBN, DON, and the abundance of bacteria, fungi, amoA-AOB, and nosZII genes, while negatively correlated with the abundance of nirS and nirK denitrification genes. 【Conclusion】Long-term conservation tillage can increase soil total nitrogen storage mainly by increasing the contribution rate of nitrogen in macro-aggregates. As the abundance of bacteria, fungi, and nitrification process genes in macroaggregates increases, the abundance of nirS and nirK denitrifying microorganisms decreases, which improves the trend of the nitrogen cycle and significantly increases soil total nitrogen content.

      • Effect of Canopy Nitrogen Deposition on Soil Phosphorus Fractions in a Moso Bamboo Forest

        WEI Jingwei, XIAO Xiangqian, ZHUO Shoujia, JIANG Wenting, SUN Hongyang, CHEN Youchao, LI Yongfu, YU Bing, CAI Yanjiang†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309110372


        【Objective】Nitrogen (N) deposition is an important global climate change factor affecting soil phosphorus (P) cycling in forest ecosystems. However, understory N application typically applied directly to the ground, has been widely used to simulate N deposition in forest ecosystems in the past. This simulation method may neglect the retention and adsorption effect of the forest canopy, which cannot truly assess the effect of N deposition on soil P cycling. Moreover, organic N is another important component of atmospheric N deposition, but the ecological effect of the organic N deposition has not been fully studied.【Method】To evaluate the effect of atmospheric N deposition on soil P cycling, a field experiment was conducted involving six treatments: canopy control (CNA-CK), canopy inorganic N addition (CNA-IN), canopy organic N addition (CNA-ON), understory control (UNA-CK), understory inorganic N addition (UNA-IN), and understory organic N addition (UNA-ON) based on the Anji MosoBamboo Ecosystem Research Station of Zhejiang A&F University, in Anji County, Zhejiang Province. The N deposition rate was set at 50 kg·hm-2·a-1 (based on the atomic mass of N, the same as below). IN uses ammonium nitrate while ON uses a mixture of 25 kg·hm-2·a-1 urea and 25 kg·hm-2·a-1 glycine as the N source. The CK treatment involves adding an equal amount of water. Soil P fractions, microbial biomass P, acid phosphatase activity, P cycling functional gene abundance, and some physicochemical properties were measured to investigate the effects of different N deposition simulation approaches and N components on soil P fractions and their driving factors.【Result】The results showed that canopy N addition (CNA) significantly reduced soil total P, occluded P, and labile P concentrations compared to understory N addition (UNA) with the percentage of 15.1%-26.5%, 18.3%-21.5% and 9.7%-38.3%, respectively. However, soil P fractions did not differ significantly between CNA-ON and CNA-IN treatments, whereas UNA-IN treatment significantly reduced resin P and labile P content compared to UNA-ON treatment. Acid phosphatase activity and pH were the main factors affecting soil P fractions, but N deposition did not significantly influence soil P cycling functional gene abundance.【Conclusion】Therefore, it was suggested that simulating N deposition via CNA significantly reduced the contents of total P and P fractions such as occluded P and labile P of Moso bamboo forest soils, whereas simulating N deposition via conventional UNA underestimated this reduction effect. Soil P is closely linked to the cycling of soil carbon and N, which are vital for maintaining a balanced nutrient ecosystem. Consequently, future simulation experiments on N deposition should systematically consider the effects of N deposition simulation approaches and N addition components on soil carbon, N, and P cycling processes.

      • Effects of Single Application of Organic Amendments and Their Combination with Biochar on Microbial Community Composition in a Red Soil

        XU Yimeng, ZHANG Lei, BAI Meixia, ZHOU Yan, QIN Hua, XU Qiufang, CHEN Junhui

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308200332


        【Objective】This study aimed to clarify the effects of different return methods of organic matter on the characteristics of soil microbial communities.【Method】The changes of soil microbial community abundance and structure under single application of maize straw, sheep manure and combined application with biochar were analyzed by quantitative PCR and high-throughput sequencing based on two years of field experiments in dry cropland red soil.【Result】The results showed that: (1) Compared with the control (no material), the soil pH and nutrient content of sheep manure alone increased significantly, while the single application of straw had no significant effect on them. Compared with straw and sheep manure alone, soil organic carbon content under the treatment of biochar co-application with straw or sheep manure was significantly increased by 133.5% and 81.47%, respectively. (2) The abundance of bacteria and fungi under the treatment of sheep manure treatment significantly increased by 448.7%and 1 709%, respectively, and the abundance of bacteria under the treatment with biochar was further increased by 35.34%. Straw alone only increased fungal abundance. Single straw application and its combination with biochar significantly reduced bacterial diversity and richness but had no significant effect on fungal diversity. (3) Straw, sheep manure and biochar alone changed the structure of bacterial and fungal communities, and there were significant interaction effects. Functional predictive analysis showed that the combination of biochar and organic materials reduced carbohydrate metabolism and the abundance of potential plant pathogens. Available phosphorus, pH, total nitrogen and available potassium were the main factors affecting the abundance and structure of soil microbial communities.【Conclusion】In summary, the combined application of sheep manure and biochar can effectively improve the fertility of dryland red soil, increase the abundance of soil microorganisms, and reduce the number of potential pathogens. Thus, the combined application of sheep manure and biochar can be used as an effective measure to improve the fertility of dryland red soil and maintain soil health.

      • Properties and Aggregation Characteristics of Humic Acid in Surface Soil Under Two Forest Vegetations of Jinyun Mountain

        BI Linna, TIAN Rui†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309280403


        【Objective】Soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, the largest C pool in terrestrial ecosystems, can achieve long-term C sequestration. SOC plays a vital role in the global C cycle and is a key link in achieving C peaking and C neutrality goals. Humic acid (HA) is one of the most important and more stable components of soil organic matter, representing a more stable soil C pool. The vegetation coverage type of regional soil affects the quantity, quality and composition of HA, and further affects its aggregation characteristics. In this study, HA in surface soil under bamboo forest (Altitude 580 m) and broad-leaved forest (Altitude 280 m) in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing, was taken as the research object, and then surface properties and aggregation characteristics of these two HA were clarified. 【Method】The structural characteristics were evaluated by element analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, and Fourier infrared spectroscopy. Combined with dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurement, the aggregation kinetic characteristics of these two HA colloids induced by Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were studied and compared. 【Result】It was found that HA in bamboo forest soil had higher C/N, C/H, stronger thermal stability and aromatic infrared absorption characteristic spectra, indicating HA in bamboo forest soil had more aromatic functional groups, more complex structure, and higher humification degree. The results of dynamic light scattering showed that the critical coagulation concentrations of Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ for the HA colloids of bamboo forest soil were 1 097.9 mmol?L-1, 8.6 mmol?L-1, and 5.1 mmol?L-1, respectively. The HA colloids of broad-leaved forest soil did not aggregate in the Na+ system, and the critical coagulation concentrations in Mg2+ and Ca2+ systems were 80.7 mmol?L-1 and 20.2 mmol?L-1, respectively. The zeta potential of HA in bamboo forest soil was much lower than that in broad-leaved forest soil. The absolute value of the zeta potential of HA in bamboo forest soil was 3.43 times that of HA in broad-leaved forest soil, which could be used to explain the difference in aggregation characteristics between the two. The sensitivity of the HA in bamboo forest soil to three cations is much higher than that of HA in broad-leaved forest soil, which can quickly aggregate and form larger particle sizes. 【Conclusion】The change of coverage vegetation types will cause the corresponding change of HA properties in surface soil. The humification degree of HA in high-altitude bamboo forest soil is higher, and the sensitivity to cations is also higher. The results of this study provide an important reference for understanding the formation and stability of HA after organic matter input into soil.

      • The Obstacles and Countermeasures of Soil Sustainability in Protected Horticulture in China

        DONG Jinlong, XU Yehong, QUAN Zhi, YIN Yilei, ZHAO Yunyun, XU Qiao, TIAN Kang, HUANG Bin, CAI Zucong, MA Yan†, DUAN Zengqiang†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202311010449


        China’s protected horticulture largely depends on soils as growth medium with low to medium technology, which is characterized by high input, high output, and intensive soil use. The cultivation area of the protected horticulture was 2.67 million hm2 in 2021, accounting for more than 80% of the global protected horticulture area. However, the protected cultivation resulted in soil degradation, non-point pollution, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and loss of crop yield and quality. This study focused on soil sustainability in protected horticulture. It summarized the obstacles that limited the sustainability of protected horticulture, which were the imbalance of soil nutrients, low soil environmental quality, the penalty of crop yield and quality, and backward land management and policy. These obstacles were mainly attributed to the low accuracy of plastic greenhouse environmental control and fertilization caused by low technology of protected facility, soil continuous cropping obstacles induced by inappropriate fertilization and monocropping, and less integrative innovation on soil management technology due to the lack of suitable land policy. This study proposed seven strategies to address current soil unsustainability, including soil profile design when building a plastic greenhouse, soil remediation at the fallow period, plastic greenhouse environmental regulation, control of soil input, buildup of crop rotation mode, plant resistance improvement, and the adaptation of land use policy. These strategies are expected to provide reasonable and scientific foundations for sustainable soil management in plastic greenhouses of low-to-medium technology possessed by smallholders.

      • Response of Soil Microbial Diversity and Community Structure to Erosion-Deposition in Slope Farmland in Typical Black Soil Area of Northeast China

        YANG Qingsong, ZHENG Shuwen, CAI Chongfa

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308150325


        【Objective】The black soil region of Northeast China is an important commodity grain production base in China. However, intense soil erosion has led to a decline in soil health and ecological functions in the region. 【Method】The microbial diversity of soils at different slope positions and their relationship with the co-occurrence network was analyzed using slope farmland soils from typical black soil areas, and the effects of erosion-deposition on soil microbial communities were investigated in combination with soil physicochemical properties. 【Result】The results showed that: (ⅰ) Soil erosion significantly reduced microbial α-diversity while deposition increased it. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and mean weight diameter (MWD) had a significant positive correlation with microbial diversity. (ⅱ) Erosion-deposition did not change the major dominant groups at the phylum or family levels of bacterial and fungal. However, at the phylum and family level, changes in the relative abundance of the main dominant groups at the fungal were more pronounced than in the case of bacteria. (ⅲ) The results of redundancy analyses indicated that erosion-deposition, by altering SOC, total phosphorus (TP), MWD, etc., led to different trends in the relative abundance of species significantly affected by them. (ⅳ) Soil erosion significantly reduced the complexity of the bacterial co-occurrence network, whose node and edge respectively decreased from 540 and 572 (top of slope) to 488 and 520 (lower slope) and increased to 546 and 602 (foot of slope). Also, soil erosion significantly increased the number of clustering coefficients, the number of which increased from 0.38 (top of the slope) to 0.41 (lower slope). Meanwhile, erosion-deposition significantly changed the number of nodes of the fungal network, the number of which decreased from 223 (foot of slope) to 187 (lower slope) and increased to 201 (foot of slope). In addition, the bacterial network stability showed a decreasing trend with increasing erosion intensity while the fungal network stability showed a decreasing and then increasing trend.【Conclusion】This study revealed the changes and driving factors of soil microbial diversity and community structure under erosion-depositions and provided a theoretical basis for further understanding of the interaction between soil physicochemical properties and microbes in slope farmland of typical black soil area.

      • Research on A Framework for Sustainable Nitrogen Management Based on Whole-chain Quantification in Food Systems

        ZHONG Yuxiu, JU Xiaotang, ZHANG Weifeng, LI Tingyu

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307310303


        The environmental emission of nitrogen (N) permeates through the entire food chain and ecological system. Nitrogen-efficient technologies in crop or livestock production alone have proven ineffective in controlling N pollution, necessitating the innovation of systematic research and management methods. A new framework, CAFE, that defines four N management systems (Cropping system, Animal-crop system, Food system, and landscape Ecosystem) hierarchically, has been established to quantify N flow to a broader perspective and help understand the complex dynamics and interactions across different N cycle systems. CAFE can be applied globally for different regions, helping elucidate the differences of N management levels in various regions and providing a new perspective and methodology for global sustainable N management. Applying CAFE to 13 representative countries reveals that the N surplus in most countries increased and the NUE decreased with the increase of the level of managed system. The N surplus in the animal-crop system, food system, and regional ecosystem increased by 152% (median), 230%, and 287%, respectively, based on the cropping system. The N surplus eventually increased from 3-153 kg·hm-2 in the cropping system to 63-464 kg·hm-2 in the regional ecosystem. At the same time, NUE decreased from 55% (median) in the cropping system to 30% in the animal-crop system and 18% in the food system. N loss increases gradually from crop production to primary agricultural products, food production, and consumption. Although the trend of N surplus increase is consistent across all countries, the magnitude of the increase varies considerably among countries, determining the different priorities for improving N management in each country. For China, as the high nitrogen surplus mainly comes from the cropping system, efforts need to be made to reduce the N surplus in cropland by promoting best management practices and adjusting the structure of N inputs. For most Western countries, the system outside the cropland contributes more to the total N surplus, and attention should be given to the N recycling of related systems. For example, the Netherlands needs to focus on matching crop-livestock structure, increasing feed self-sufficiency rate, and reducing livestock density to decrease N surplus in the animal-crop system. Japan needs to further reduce food waste or increase circulation, while African countries need to reduce crop storage waste and improve overall productivity. The analysis of the global CAFE system shows that the main factors affecting the surplus increment across systems include the structure of N input in cropland, livestock density, feed self-sufficiency rate, and the relationship between food trade and domestic supply and demand. However, these factors have not yet received attention in global N management. CAFE provides a consistent quantitative method for global N whole-chain management, which is helpful for cross-regional comparison, experience sharing, and policy formulation.

      • Characteristics of Aggregate Turnover and Sediment Transport by Interrill Erosion Using Rare Earth Elements in Red Soil

        ZHANG Chenyang, YANG Wei, WANG Ling, PENG Jue, WANG Junguang, CAI Chongfa

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202306270248


        Soil aggregates are the basic unit of soil structure and the particle size distribution of surface aggregates play an important role in soil structure and erosion process development.【Objective】Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explores the mutual transformation of soil aggregates of different particle sizes and the sediment migration path during the interrill erosion and quantify the source characteristics of eroded sediment.【Method】In this study, a quaternary red clay was collected from Xian’ning in Hubei Province of China, and the soil aggregates were labeled by the rare earth tracer method. Under the condition of 90 mm·h-1 rainfall intensity, the laboratory simulated rainfall experiment was conducted based on a miniature soil trough with the slope set at 10°. Sediment samples were collected at an interval of 6 min after steady flow production during rainfall, and the contents of rare earth elements in the samples were determined by ICP-MS. A quantitative characterization was also performed on the transformation of soil aggregates within different particle sizes(5~2 mm, large macroaggregates; 2~0.25 mm, small macroaggregates; 0.25~0.053 mm, microaggregates; and <0.053 mm, silt and clay fractions) and the source characteristics of erosion sediment under the Rare Earth Element (REE) concentration.【Result】The results show that the eroded sediment particles were mainly formed by the same size aggregates transported by runoff, and the content of the sediment particles with the increase of rainfall time. The residual aggregates showed an obvious turnover process and the aggregates with size < 0.25 mm were more easily adsorbed to the aggregates with large size, while the aggregates with size ˃ 0.25 mm tended to be broken (the fragmentation rate reached 45.8% and 43.3%), and the broken degree of soil aggregates increased continuously. The characteristics of sediment yield were closely related to the change in topsoil structure and sediment migration and the sediment content of < 0.053 mm and 2~0.25 mm and the contribution rate of the corresponding aggregates in sediment played an important role in the fractal dimension of runoff coefficient and sediment particle size.For the characteristics of erosion sediment production, the sediment content of < 0.053 m and 2~0.25 mm and the contribution rate of the corresponding aggregates in the sediment played an important role in the runoff coefficient and the fractal dimension of sediment particle size.【Conclusion】Thus, the change of soil topsoil structure and the characteristics of sediment loss during interrill erosion are closely related to aggregate particle size. This further deepens the dynamic process of the interrill erosion and provides a theoretical basis for the soil erosion model and soil and water conservation measures.

      • Browser/Server Architecture Simulation and Visualization System for Soil and Groundwater Organic Pollution Based on Multi-Field Coupling

        YANG Yun, YANG Hao, XU Bin, ZUO Jinsong, XIONG Guiyao, ZHAO Liang, WANG Jinguo, WU Jichun

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202306150233


        【Objective】There are many factors governing the migration of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface because of the simultaneous flow of immiscible phases in a multiphase system including NAPLs, water and air after the leakage of NAPLs. The driving mechanism of NAPLs in the site soil-water system is complex, and predicting and visualizing the spatial-temporal distribution and changes of pollutants are prerequisites for scientific and standardized green and low-carbon remediation and control of soil and groundwater pollution. 【Method】This article is based on the WebGIS geographic information system platform and incorporates self-developed organic contamination multiphase flow-temperature-chemical multi-field coupled simulation and Cesium visualization technology. It integrates a Browser/Server (B/S) architecture-based spatial distribution simulation and visualization system for organic pollutants in the soil-water system of contaminated sites.【Result】The visualization system can be applied to the integrated management of organic pollution site investigation and monitoring data, graphical modeling of organic pollution spatiotemporal distribution, and visual expression of the entire multi-field coupling pollution process. The system is applied to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of the di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) contaminant in the soil and groundwater of a certain organic pollution site in the South. The overall fit of the system reaches an R-value of 0.91, with simulation errors less than 30%. Based on the coupling model, the system further predicts the attenuation process of DEHP. It calculates the proportions of NAPL that remain adsorbed as a residual phase (50.3%) and those that undergo degradation due to volatilization (11.3%) and dissolution (7.4%) within the simulation period. 【Conclusion】Due to difficulties in acquiring on-site parameters, the model used physical and chemical properties of soil, water, gas, and NAPLs referenced from relevant literature, resulting in some uncertainty in the simulation results at the site scale. Nevertheless, the overall trend of predicting the spatiotemporal distribution of DEHP is reasonable and aligns with the coupled mechanisms of multi-phase flow, temperature field, and chemical field in organic pollution sites. Through visualizing different scenarios of organic pollutant spatiotemporal distribution and prediction, the visualization system can provide an information platform for organic pollution risk assessment, precise prevention and control, and comprehensive management of contaminated sites.

      • Response mechanisms of soil microbial carbon use efficiencies to cropland management measures

        ZHANG Chenyang, SUN Liyang, XU Minggang, LIJianhua, CAI Andong

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309020351


        【Objective】Soil microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) is an important indicator reflecting the regulation of the soil carbon cycle by microorganisms through their metabolism. However, the response and driving factors of soil microbial CUE to different management measures in cropland ecosystems are still unclear. This hinders a deep understanding of soil organic carbon turnover, rapid improvement of soil fertility, and effective mitigation of climate change.【Method】We collected published literature from around the world, and established 198 paired of relatively independent soil microbial CUE databases under different cropland management measures, including 13C-labeled substrate (CUE13C), 18O-labeled water (CUE18O) and stoichiometric model (CUEST) approaches. We quantitatively evaluated the response of soil microbial CUE to different cropland management measures under specific climate, soil properties, and experimental conditions by meta-analysis, combining Pearson and regression analysis to study the biotic and abiotic factors that control soil microbial CUE variation.【Result】(1) Compared with no biochar addition, biochar addition increased soil microbial CUE13C and CUE18O by 9.40% and 18.22%, respectively, while CUEST decreased by 40.01%. Compared with no fertilization, the application of chemical fertilizers could reduce soil microbial CUE18O (-4.71%), but increased soil microbial CUEST (28.20%), whereas straw amendments led to a decrease in soil microbial CUE18O and CUEST by 14.08% and 28.64%, respectively. Relative to conventional tillage, no or reduced tillage significantly increased soil microbial CUE13C, CUE18O, and CUEST (-2.12%-15.45%). (2) There were significant differences in the effects of cropland management measures on soil microbial CUE under different climates, soil properties and experimental conditions. Cropland management measures in semi-arid and humid areas reduced the soil microbial CUE13C by 8.80% and increased by 4.69%, but the soil microbial CUE18O decreased from 44.57% to -2.31%. When the soil organic carbon content was > 12 g·kg-1, cropland management measures increased the soil microbial CUE13C and CUEST by 7.79% and 12.87%, respectively. In the transition from acidic to alkaline soils, cropland management measures caused the soil microbial CUE13C to decrease from 12.74% to -7.51%. Also, as soil clay content increased, soil microbial CUE13C and CUEST decreased, while soil microbial CUE18O showed an increasing trend. With the increase of soil cation exchange capacity, soil microbial CUE18O and CUEST showed a decreasing trend. When the experimental duration was 3-10 years, cropland management measures increased soil microbial CUE18O by 43.49% while soil microbial CUEST decreased by 23.72%. (3) Soil microbial CUE13C increased with aridity index and decreased with soil pH. Furthermore, the soil microbial CUE18O increased with soil microbial growth rate and soil microbial biomass carbon. Soil organic carbon, β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase were positively correlated with soil microbial CUEST (P < 0.05) whereas soil clay content was negatively correlated with soil microbial CUEST (P < 0.01). 【Conclusion】Considering climatic factors and soil chemical properties, and the response of microbial activity and function to cropland management measures at a specific site is conducive to adjusting the soil microbial CUE at the microbial community or cell level, thereby effectively promoting soil carbon formation and accumulation in cropland ecosystems.

      • Long-term Observation Effects on Soil Salinity and Fertility in Saline-alkali Land Reclamation Under Drip Irrigation

        HUO Weige, PENG Yi, ZHANG Shaomin, LIU Shenglin, BAIDENGSHA Maimaiti, FENG Gu†

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202309080368


        【Objective】The submembrane drip irrigation planting mode has been a major factor in the evolution of physicochemical traits after the reclamation of saline-alkali land in inland arid areas, especially the changes in soil salinity and available nutrient content. 【Method】In this study, the gray desert soil of Xinjiang was studied by continuous localization survey and observation of the sample plot. The sample plots of Manas in Xinjiang were selected for land reclamation in different years in 1996, and four surveys were carried out from 2010 to 2020. The dynamic changes of soil salinity and fertility traits of gray desert soil under the condition of submembrane drip irrigation cotton after reclamation were monitored at fixed points, and the differences of several plots after different planting years were compared.【Result】The main results suggest that the soil salinity in the topsoil (0-20 cm) was significantly reduced after the reclamation from uncultivated land to farmland, and the average salinity of various plots decreased to 3.71 g·kg-1 after 6-10 years of reclamation. The average annual decline rate was 1.41 g·kg-1·a-1, reaching the level of mild salinization, then with the continued reclamation (11-25 years), the soil salinity was maintained between 2.06-2.11 g·kg-1, and reaching the non-salinization level. The soil pH in different reclamation years showed a significant downward trend after reclamation. With continued reclamation (11-25 years), the average soil pH remained between 8.2 and 8.5, which was slightly alkaline. With increasing years of reclamation, the soil available phosphorus (P) increased significantly, after 11-25 years of reclamation and planting, the soil average available P level remained between 13.33, and 19.97 mg·kg-1. This indicates that the variation of soil fertility was different with the different reclamation years. The soil organic matter increased significantly after 6-10 years of reclamation while the soil available potassium slowly decreased after 1-5 years of reclamation but slightly increased after 6-10 years. Also, available potassium increased to the original level after 11-16 years and then remained stable. The content of soil inorganic nitrogen increased significantly after 6-15 years of reclamation and remained stable after 16-25 years.【Conclusion】Our study showed that the process of reclamation and utilization of uncultivated land into farmland had a significant effect on the improvement and cultivation of soil P fertility. The uncultivated land reclamation and utilization effectively reduced soil salinity and pH, and it took 6-10 years to change the good land after uncultivated land reclamation. This study provides a theoretical basis for the control of salt content and the improvement of fertilization and farmland productivity during the reclamation process of inland saline-alkali uncultivated land.

      • Effects of Ozone Pollution and Ethylenediurea Spraying on the Rhizospheric Bacterial Community of Wheat Plant

        Zhang Haoran, Shi Yu, Liu Yuanyuan, Cheng Cheng, Wang Qi, Xu Yansen, Feng Zhaozhong

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307010254


        【Objtctive】Tropospheric ozone (O3) is one of the most severe plant toxic air pollutants, it poses a serious threat to food production and security. Ethylenediurea (EDU) can effectively mitigate O3-induced crop yield loss. However the effects of elevated O3, EDU, and their interaction on the rhizospheric bacterial community of wheat plant remains unclear.【Method】Triticum aestivum L Nongmai88 was grown in China O3 Free-Air Concentration Enrichment (O3-FACE) platform under either ambient atmospheric O3 (A treatment) or 1.5 times ambient atmospheric O3 (E treatment), and the foliage sprayed with 450 mg·L-1 EDU or equal mount of water every ten days. The rhizospheric bacterial communitites under different treatments were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in combination with redundancy analysis (RDA).【Result】It was found that EDU increased wheat root biomass by 8%~58% and decreased soil pH by 4%~10%, both of which reached significant levels under A treatment. The elevated O3, EDU foliar spray, and their interaction did not significantly affect the alpha diversity indices of rhizospheric bacterial communities, but the elevated O3 caused significant variation in the whole bacterial community structure. In addition, the effect of EDU on the structure of the bacterial community in A treatment was more significant than that under E treatment. Proteobacteria (with a relative abundance ratio of 28%~39%), Bacteroidota (11%~20%), and Acidobacteriota (7%~11%) were the most dominant phyla in all treatments of the rhizosphere soil. Both the elevated O3 and EDU foliar spray significantly reduced the relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria but increased the relative abundance of Chloroflexi. E treatment increased the relative abundance of Nitrospirota by 71% to 164%, while EDU treatment increased the relative abundance of Planctomycota by 23% to 70%. Based on the results of RDA, it was found that the content of available postassium (AK) and pH were the main drivers, explaining 21% and 16% of the variation in bacterial community structure, respectively (P<0.005). Furthermore, the Spearman correlation analysis results showed that the content of AK in rhizospheric soil was significantly negatively correlated with the relative abundance of the Chloroflexi and Nitrospirota phyla (r=-0.846 ~ -0.586), while it was significantly positively correlated with the relative abundance of the Alphaproteobacteria subphyla (r=0.604).【Conclusion】In summary, wheat may improve its adaptability to increased O3 concentration by reducing the abundance of copiotrophic bacteria and increasing the relative abundance of oligotrophic bacteria, while foliar spraying with EDU may also alleviate wheat O3 stress in wheat through this way.

      • Virus Diversity Studies in Paddy Soils

        Liu Zekun, HUANG Shixuan, YANG Meiyan

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202306130230


        【Objective】Viruses are the most abundant and diverse group of microorganisms on Earth as they can be found in a wide range of organisms and environments. Despite their ubiquity, there are relatively few studies on the virome in paddy soil systems, which is an area that warrants investigation. 【Method】In this study, virus sequences were mined from rice soil macrogenome sequencing data in public databases and characterized. 【Result】A database of paddy soil viruses (PSVD) was constructed, which contained 8,791 viral operational taxonomic units (vOTUs) and 168,940 protein sequences. In PSVD, 31.41% of the sequences could predict the taxonomic status of the species. These viral sequences belonged to 76 known virus families, with the majority of viruses coming from the Caudoviricetes, and their hosts were mainly distributed across 11 bacterial phyla. Also, Auxiliary Metabolic Genes (AMGs) carried by rice field soil viruses were analyzed, and 39 carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) genes, which may have been widely distributed in rice soil systems, were identified, and the presence of these genes contributed to biogeochemical cycling. 【Conclusion】In summary, this study innovatively constructed a PSVD database and used DRAM-v to mine AMG genes in paddy soil systems, thus, laying a research foundation for later studies of paddy soil virus groups and providing new insights for the resolution of paddy virus communities.

      • Mechanism of Degradation of Typical Malodorous Benzene Congeners in Soil by Activated Persulfate with Sulfidized Nano-zero-valent Iron Loaded on Biochar

        LI Yanlu, YANG Xinglun, BIAN Yongrong, MA Zhiyong, GU Chenggang, SONG Yang, XIANG Leilei, WANG Fang, JIANG Xin

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202310240433


        【Objective】The degradation of organic pollutants in soil by activated persulfate (PS) with nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) or sulfidized nanoscale zero-valent iron (S-nZVI) is currently one of the research hotspots in in-situ chemical oxidation remediation technologies. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) are typical odorous pollutants in petrochemical-contaminated sites. Thus, the discovery of remediation technologies aimed to achieve efficient removal of BTEX and the elucidation of the degradation mechanism is of great environmental significance.【Method】The study established a persulfate oxidation system using biochar-supported sulfidized nano zero-valent iron (S-nZVI@BC) as the activator, explored the degradation of BTEX under different conditions, and compared its effectiveness with other materials for PS degradation. Moreover, based on chemical probe experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, and purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS), the degradation pathways of BTEX were indicated.【Result】The results showed that S-nZVI@BC/PS system had the best degradation efficiency on BTEX in the soil at pH = 3, S/Fe = 1/4, Fe/C = 1/2, S-nZVI@BC dosage of 0.01g•g-1soil, and PS concentration of 30 mmol•L-1. The degradation rates of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and ortho-xylene in the S-nZVI@BC/PS system reached 96.7%, 98.5%, 96.9%, and 98.4% within 2 h, respectively. The S-nZVI@BC catalytic system showed the best performance among the five different catalytic systems studied in the order of PS < nZVI/PS < nZVI@BC/PS < S-nZVI/PS < S-nZVI@BC/PS. Also, S-nZVI@BC maintained good reaction activity in a wide range of pH 2-9. There were three active free radicals in the system: SO4˙-, HO˙, and O2˙-, among which SO4˙- was confirmed as the main active substance in the reaction process. Based on main free radicals and intermediates, it is indicated that BTEX may have two degradation pathways: Free radical addition and free radical hydrogen extraction reaction.【Conclusion】Sulfur modification and biochar loading effectively improved the stability of nZVI catalytic performance, and S-nZVI@BC/PS can efficiently degrade BTEX. This study provides theoretical support for the establishment of efficient degradation technology for odorous pollutants in soils.

      • Effects of Long-term Crop Cultivation on Soil Organic Carbon in China

        ZHANG Yingchun, WANG Ping, LIU Yalong, WANG Jingkuan

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308230339


        【Objective】Carbon sequestration and emission reduction of farmland soil is an important area to realize the "dual carbon" strategy in agriculture. This study attempted to explore the impact of long-term crop cultivation on soil organic carbon (SOC) under different climatic conditions, soil properties, and agronomic measures, as well as to clarify the natural and artificial conditions conducive to SOC accumulation under long-term crop cultivation in China.【Method】This study collected and sorted out 147 published literature on SOC changes in China during cultivation over 5 years from 1990 to 2022, and finally established 934 databases. Meta-analysis was used to quantitatively analyze the changes in SOC under long-term crop cultivation in China, and systematically analyze the influence degree of various factors.【Result】Under the influence of climate, initial soil properties, and agronomic measures, the SOC content in the topsoil of long-term crop cultivation in China increased by 17.85% overall. However, the increase in organic carbon decreased with the deepening of the soil layer. The warm-temperate zone climate had the most obvious effect on SOC accumulation, reaching 33.62%. When at an altitude of 200~600 m, a temperature of 8~15 ℃, and precipitation of 600~1 000 mm, the accumulation of SOC was the highest, increasing by 28.90%, 35.11%, and 31.33%, respectively. In addition to pH and alkali-N, the increase in SOC under long-term crop cultivation continued to decrease with the increase of initial SOC, total nitrogen, and other available nutrients. When the initial nutrient content in the soil was at a low level (0~10 g·kg-1 SOC, 0~0.9 g·kg-1 TN, 0~10 mg·kg-1 Olsen-P and 0~75 mg·kg-1 Olsen-K), the increase in SOC was the highest, increasing by 35.65%, 44.72%, 24.98%, and 6.38%, respectively. In addition, all conventional agronomic measures currently have an increasing effect on SOC content. The total straw return had the largest increase in SOC, which was 33.62%. Long-term non-fertilization had no significant impact on SOC.【Conclusion】The low altitude warm temperate zone in China was more conducive to the accumulation of SOC in farmland soil. As the soil layer deepens, the increase in SOC caused by long-term crop cultivation gradually decreases. In addition to alkali-N, soils with poorer initial nutrients (SOC, total nitrogen, Olsen-P and Olsen-K), are more conducive to the accumulation of SOC. Among various field management (straw returning, film covering, fertilization and tillage), total straw return is the most effective in promoting the accumulation of SOC. These research results are of great significance for achieving carbon neutrality and sustainable development in agriculture as soon as possible.

      • Leaching Characteristics of Residual Fertilizer Nitrogen in the Dryland of Loess Plateau During the Summer Fallow Period

        XIA Mengjie, WANG Huimin, LEI Shuang, ZHAO Mengzhen, FENG Hao, ZHOU Jianbin

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202308250340


        【Objective】Summer fallow after winter wheat harvest in dryland is a common practice on the Loess Plateau. However, due to bare land and intensive rainfall during summer fallow, the leaching characteristics of residual fertilizer nitrogen (N) after crop harvest deserve attention. This study aimed to reveal that the destination of applied N fertilizer after wheat season and the leaching characteristics of residual N fertilizer during summer fallow in dryland of the Loess Plateau. 【Method】This study was carried out in large lysimeters (3 m×2.2 m×3 m) by the 15N labeled method. 15N labeled urea was applied at the beginning as basal fertilizer with the rate of 150 kg•hm-2. Firstly, the absorption of 15N labeled fertilizer by wheat and the residual N in the soil after wheat harvest were investigated, and subsequently the 15N abundance and content changes of residual 15N labeled fertilizer in the soil profile were measured during the summer fallow of three years (2015—2017). 【Result】The results showed that the average absorption of nitrogen fertilizer by wheat was 53.9% while the amount of 15N fertilizer distributed in the soil (0-100 cm) after wheat harvest was 36.3% of the N application rate, with an average of 40.1% being in nitrate form. In the first year, the residual 15N fertilizer which accumulated in the 0-40 cm soil layer moved downward and accumulated in the 60-80 cm soil layer during the following summer fallow. The 15NO3--N mainly accumulated in the above 80 cm soil layer before summer fallow, but the accumulation peak of 15NO3--N was in the 80-100 cm soil layer at the end of fallow. In the second and third years, the residual 15N fertilizer and 15NO3--N moved downward about 20 cm, respectively, during summer fallow. After the summer fallow, the amount of residual 15N fertilizer in the 0-100 cm soil layer decreased, but the amount of residual 15N fertilizer and 15NO3--N in the 100-200 cm soil layer both increased. Specifically, the amount of residual N in the 100-200 cm soil layer increased by 1.9 and 7.0 kg•hm-2 during the summer fallow of the second and third years, respectively. Also, the amount of 15NO3--N in the 100-200 cm soil layer increased by 2.7 and 7.0 kg•hm-2 during the summer fallow of the second and third years, respectively. 【Conclusion】During the summer fallow, residual N fertilizer leached significantly. Under normal precipitation conditions, the average downward migration rate of residual N fertilizer during a summer fallow was 20 cm. As the age increased, the residual N fertilizer in the 0-100 cm soil decreased; while it increased in the 100-200 cm soil layer, with nitrate as the main leached form. However, the cumulative total loss of residual N fertilizer in the 0-200 cm soil profile during summer fallow was small, indicating that the redistribution of residual N fertilizer nitrogen in the soil profile was the main mechanism.

      • Meta-analysis: Effects of Grazing on Composition and Function of Soil Fungal Community in Northern Grasslands of China

        LIN Xizhao, LI Xinglu, JIANG Xiaoyu, HE Peng, WANG Xuewei, LING Ning

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202304150149


        【Objective】This study aimed to clarify the general rules of the impact of grazing on the composition and function of soil fungal communities in northern grasslands of China, and to provide the theoretical foundation for ecological conservation efforts in these grasslands. 【Method】This study collected 119 raw data of soil fungi from different studies in grazed grasslands, used unified bioinformatics processing methods and meta-analysis to demonstrate the changes in α-diversity, community composition and functional groups of soil fungi within grazed grasslands, and used weighted mixed-effects models for environmental factor analysis. 【Result】The results indicated that grazing reduced the soil fungal α-diversity and significantly decreased the relative abundance of pathotrophic fungi, wood saprotrophic fungi, soil saprotrophic fungi, and endophytic fungi. The change in grazing soil fungal α-diversity and functional fungal relative abundance depended on altered environmental factors in different regions. The negative effect of grazing on soil fungal α-diversity was mitigated to some extent in the regions with lower organic carbon content, lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and higher annual precipitation. Initial soil organic carbon content and grazing exclusion duration influenced the variations in functional fungal abundance, with long-term grazing exclusion promoting the recovery of soil saprotrophic and symbiotrophic fungi communities. As the initial carbon-to-nitrogen ratio increased, the degree of reduction in the relative abundance of pathotrophic fungi under grazing decreased. In contrast, the degree of reduction in the relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi increased. Importantly, in regions with lower precipitation, grazing had a more significant impact on reducing the relative abundance of saprotrophic and symbiotrophic fungi. 【Conclusion】Overall, grazing negatively affected the α-diversity and functional traits of soil fungal communities in the northern grasslands of China. However, the degree and direction of this effect depended on the local environmental conditions.

      • Creation and Evaluation Method of Plough Layer Reconstruction Materials for “Non-Grain Production of Cultivated Land”

        HAO Dian, ZHOU Runhui, GAO Wenzhe, LUO Jipeng, WANG Yuanfan, LI Tingqiang

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202307140272


        【Objective】Economical crops like seedlings and flowers are frequently sold with soil transplantation practices, which directly leads to the soil plough layer becoming shallow or even stripped and eventually disappearing. This type of "non-grain production of cultivated land" with stripped plough layer can cause soil structure damage, nutrient imbalance, and fertility degradation, thus, it is a serious threat to the foundation of national food security and the healthy development of agriculture. The main problem with the stripped "non-grain production of cultivated land" is the lack of a high-quality plough layer. Therefore, a solution promoting the reconstruction of the high-quality plough layer to meet the fundamental needs of crops is key to replanting these soils. However, there is currently no systematic research aimed at solving this problem. 【Method】A novel plough layer reconstruction material was developed using long-lasting organic materials such as herbal peat, moss peat, rice husk biochar, sawdust biochar, active organic material vegetable corn husk, and microbial inoculants. We employed cluster and principal component analyses to identify the minimum data set of quality evaluation indicators for plough layer reconstruction materials, which was then combined with the quality index model to create a comprehensive quality evaluation system. 【Result】The result showed that the plough layer reconstruction materials with moss peat and rice husk biochar as main raw materials had higher quality and could effectively improve the fertility and compact structure of plough layer damaged soils. This material was characterized by a loose texture, bulk density of 0.1347~0.1466g·cm-3, high capillary porosity (64.83%~67.82%), strong water-holding capacity, high organic matter content (658.85~704.92g·kg-1), and high SOC recalcitrance index of 75.27%~84.71%., with a high potential for sequestration and sink enhancement. The minimum data set constructed with SOC, Labile C, HS, TN, TK, capillary porosity, and pH can be used as a quality evaluation system for plough layer reconstruction materials. Based on the above system, the optimal formulation of the plough layer reconstruction material was screened as follows: when moss peat (M) is mixed and configured with rice husk biochar (R) at mass ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and then 10:1 with vegetable corn husk (C); ((M+R)10C1, (2M+R)10C1, and (3M+R)10C1), a high-quality ploughing layer reconstruction material can be formed. On "non-grain production of cultivated land," the application of selected plough layer reconstruction materials can dramatically lower soil bulk density and raise soil organic matter content by 177.35% to 204.31% compared to the control. Additionally, the treatment also increased the soil""s effective nutrient content and soil carbon sequestration potential. The plant height, weight, and number of spikes of wheat were higher than those in the control after the application of the plough layer reconstruction material. This resulted in the yield of wheat being 5.6 times higher than that of the control, which demonstrates the benefit of this type of material for crop growth. 【Conclusion】The indicator evaluation system established by this research can comprehensively and objectively evaluate the overall quality of plough layer reconstruction materials, and the materials created with moss peat and rice husk biochar as raw materials showed high application value in improving soil quality, increasing soil carbon sequestration capacity, and restoring crop production.

      • Quick Acquisition of Black Soil pH Values from Northeast China by Portable Soil Multi-parameter Rapid Detection Instrument

        Feng Zhang, Wenyou Hu, Liangliang Wang, Decheng Li, Chao Zhang, Enzhe Xie, Guojing Yan, Jun Jiang, Renkou Xu

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202304200157


        【Objective】Soil pH is a crucial indicator of arable land quality. Therefore, precise and rapid measurement of soil pH is essential for the implementation of digital agriculture. 【Method】In the present study, pH levels of the black soil in the Liaohe and Songnen plains were determined in situ using a self-developed portable soil multi-parameter rapid detection instrument (SHMI2000). The results were compared to those obtained in the laboratory using the potentiometry method (HJ 962–2018). 【Result】(1) The laboratory observations showed that surface and subsurface soil pH values ranged from 4.04 to 10.09, and 4.01 to 10.06, respectively. The mean values were 6.13 and 6.47, and the variation coefficient values were moderate at 19.64% and 18.37%, respectively. Also, the study also revealed that the soils in the southwest black soil area were predominantly alkaline, whereas the soils in the east (Sanjiang Plain), north (Songnen Plain), and south (particularly in the Southern Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning Provinces) were acidic in nature. (2) The Pearson correlation analysis showed a strong relationship (correlation coefficient of 0.81, P=9.11×10-52) between pH values obtained in situ and the laboratory. (3) The correlation coefficient increased to 0.93 after the moving average process, using 0.2 pH units as step size.【Conclusion】Therefore, the SHMI2000 instrument can accurately and reliably acquire black soil pH values in situ.

      • Effects of Green Manure, Rice Straw Return and Lime Combination on Soil Acidity and Rice Yield

        LIU Fangxi, FANG Changyu, YU Zhenyu, GAO Yajie, ZHANG Jianglin, LU Yanhong, LIAO Yulin, CAO Weidong, NIE Jun, TU Naimei

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202304040125


        【Objective】 Long-term tillage and fertilization accelerate soil acidification of red loam rice. Thus, this study was designed to study the effects of green manure, straw return, and lime combination on the soil acidity characteristics of rice soil and rice yield. 【Method】This study is based on the long-term positioning micro-area experiment started in 2016 to explore the effects of no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (F), chemical fertilizer + milk vetch + rice straw return (GRF), chemical fertilizer + milk vetch + straw return (GRFL) treatment on rice yield and different forms of acid in red soil. The effects of soil salt-based ions and soil acid-base buffer capacity was resolved, and the correlation between soil acid-base buffer capacity, exchangeable acid, organic matter, and exchangeable salt-based ions was investigated. 【Result】 The results for seven consecutive years showed that compared with F treatment, the yield of early and late rice treated by GRF increased by 19.9% and 5.1%, respectively, and the average yield increase rate in 7 years was 12.8% and 5.9%, respectively. The yield of early and late rice treated by GRFL increased by 23.4% and 14.2%, respectively, and the average yield increase rate in 7 years was 11.1% and 8.9%, respectively. During this time, the soil pH of early and late rice treated with CK, F and GRF showed a decreasing trend year by year, while the soil pH value of GRFL treatment showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing. Compared with F treatment, GRF and GRFL treatment significantly improved the exchangeable K, the total amount of exchangeable salt-based ions and the acid-base buffer capacity of early and late rice soil, and there was no significant difference between GRF and GRFL treatments, but all indexes of GRFL treatment showed an improvement trend. Correlation analysis showed that pH was negatively correlated with exchangeable acidity and exchangeable H+ (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with acid-base buffer capacity, exchangeable Na+, exchangeable Mg2+, and the total amount of exchangeable salt group ions (P < 0.01). Also, the soil acid-base buffer capacity was mainly related to the exchangeable acidity, exchangeable H+, exchangeable Na+ and exchangeable Mg2+. In addition, rice yield was related to soil acidity properties and nutrient effects, and the soil acidity properties had the greatest impact. 【Conclusion】 The results showed that rolling green manure and straw returning to the field could effectively alleviate the acidification of paddy soil and improve rice yield, and the addition of lime could enhance its effect, and the exchangeable acidity, exchangeable H+, acid-base buffer capacity, exchangeable Na+, exchangeable Mg2+, and total exchangeable salt-based ions were the main factors affecting soil pH.

      • Progress of soil temperature prediction equation

        Zhang Jianbin, Gao Zhi Qiu, Tong Bing, Wang Linlin

        DOI: 10.11766/trxb202210220581


        Soil temperature (especially surface temperature) is a key physical quantity in the interaction between land and atmosphere, and plays a very important role in the earth system. Soil temperature prediction technology has always been the core scientific problem in land surface model, numerical weather prediction and climate prediction. This paper systematically reviews the research progress of soil temperature prediction equation, from the classical heat conduction equation to the heat conduction convection equation that takes into account the physical process of vertical movement of soil moisture, from the single sine wave approximation to the Fourier series approximation of the daily change of surface temperature, from the assumption that the diurnal change of convection parameters is constant to the consideration of its diurnal change, and emphatically summarizes the creation, improvement and solution of the soil heat conduction convection equation. Finally, this paper reviews the application of heat conduction convection equation in the study of surface energy balance, vertical movement of soil moisture, water flux, earthquake and frozen soil heat transfer. At the same time, it is pointed out that the influences of soil water phases and plant roots on the heat conduction-convection equation is warranted for the future research of soil temperature prediction equation.


Supervisor: Chinese Academy of Sciences

Sponsor:Soil Science Society of China

Editor-in-Chief:Xu Renkou

Address:71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China

Zip Code:210008




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