通过土柱出流实验研究锑在我国南方的红壤和棕色石灰土中的迁移行为，对实验结束后的土柱进行分级提取，得出土壤中不同形态锑的百分比。为分析氧化还原电位对锑迁移的影响，探讨了不同pH条件下锑在覆铁石英砂中的迁移行为。实验结果表明，锑在棕色石灰土中迁移时穿透曲线的峰值(C/C0=0.88)比在红壤(C/C0=0.26) 中的高，出流所需时间短；在红壤中迁移时穿透曲线的“拖尾”现象较明显。第二次出流的情况正好相反，锑在红壤中的穿透曲线峰值明显升高C/C0达到0.58，而锑在棕色石灰土中的穿透曲线峰值较第一次明显降低(C/C0=0.70)，说明红壤第一次淋洗不彻底，棕色石灰土第一次淋洗比较彻底。土柱实验结束后的土壤中锑主要以铁铝氧化物结合态存在，非专性吸附态、专性吸附态和残渣态含量很少，棕色石灰土中的弱结合态锑含量较红壤中多。不同pH条件下锑在覆铁石英砂中迁移特征为，当pH 为4时锑在覆铁石英砂中的穿透曲线对称性较好，“拖尾”现象不明显，随着pH变大穿透曲线对称性变差，“拖尾”现象变明显。
Through soil column leaching experiments, migration of antimony in red and brown calcareous soil, typical to South China was studied. Samples were collected from the columns at the end of the experiment for analysis of proportions of varieus fractions of Sb(V) different in binding form using the sequential extraction method, based on which impacts of redox potential on migration of antimony, and of pH on migration of antimony in iron-coated quartz sands. The experimental results show that the migration of antimony in the brown calcareous soil had a higher peak value (C/C0 = 0.88) on its penetration curve than that in the red soil (C/C0= 0.26), and the effluence of antimony was observed earlier in the former than in the latter. In the red soil, "hangover" of the penetration curve was quite apparent. Things went just reversely with the second leaching effluence. The peak value of the penetration curve increased significantly with C/C0 reaching up to 0.58 in the red soil, but decreased significantly in the brown calcareous soil as compared with the first leaching and C/C0 reduced to 0.70, which indicates that the first leaching was imcomplete in the red soil and fairly thorough in the brown calcareous soil. The sequential extraction experiment reveals in the acid red soil antimony exists mainly in the form fairly strong in binding energy and stable chemically, so it takes a longer time for antimony to get through the soil column and the process of penetration is not so clear. In the brown calcareous soil, antimony exists quite similarly to its presence in the red soil in form and distribution pattern, but the proportion of weakly bonded forms of antimony (non-specifically adsorbed and specifically adsorbed forms) is higher than that in the red soil, which indicates that its adsorption is somewhat reversible, and may also explain why Sb in the brown calcareous soil needs less time to penetrate with a higher penetration peak. Soil pH has some effect on migration of antimony in iron-coated quartz sands. When pH was 4, antimony penetrated iron-coasted quartz sands displaying a nice symmetric penetration curve, without much hangover. With rising pH, symmetry of the curve was disturbed and the phenomenon of hangover became obvious. Based on the experiments it could be concluded that the antimony in the red soil is quite lower in mobility than that in the brown calcareous soil as is shown in the first leaching experiment, and the mobility improves in the red soil when leaching lasts long enough as is indicated in the second leaching experiment. Through the soil column extraction experiment, it is found that the antimony in the soils exists mainly in iron and aluminum oxides-complexed form, and a limited proportion in non-specifically adsorbed, specifically adsorbed or residue form, while the antimony content in brown calcareous soil consists more of weakly bonded forms, and that soil pH has some obvious effect on migration of antimony in iron-coated quartz sands and with rising pH, antimony weakens in mobility in the quartz sands.
李璐璐,张 华,周世伟,徐绍辉.五价锑在中国南方两类典型土壤中的迁移特征[J].土壤学报,2015,52(2):321-328. DOI:10.11766/trxb201405280254 Li Lulu, Zhang Hua, Zhou Shiwei, Xu Shaohui. Migration of pentavalent antimony in two types of soils typical to South China[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2015,52(2):321-328.复制