我国现代化基础建设和城市化进程，促进了我国经济的快速发展。至2013年全国高速公路和高速铁路通车里程分别达到10.44×104 km和1.3×104 km，跃居世界第一。但国家重大工程施工，均是以牺牲土壤生态为代价的基础建设项目，破坏了土壤圈物质与生物循环，加剧了土壤侵蚀和地质夷平过程，因此土壤生态修复势在必行。本文综合15年的研发，重点阐述了高速公路、高速铁路和城镇化发展中国家重大工程建设所造成的土壤破坏特征，结合大量土壤生态修复工程实践，论述了道路创伤边坡、城市高陡岩石边坡土壤生态修复创新技术，为我国南方基础工程建设提供了侵蚀性土壤生态修复支撑技术体系。
The processes of modernized infrastructure construction and urbanization in China are promoting rapid development of the economy of the country. By 2013, the national highway and high speed railway traffic mileage had reached 104 400 km and 13 000 km, ranking first in the world. However, any one of the national major engineering construction projects is done at the expense of soil ecology, disturbing the circulation of material and biomass in the pedosphere, aggravating soil erosion and geological planation process. It is, therefore, essential and imperative to remedy the soil ecology after the construction is completed. A review is presented here of the researches and development in this aspect in the past 15 years, elaborating emphatically characteristics of the soil destruction caused by the national major engineering construction, like highways, high-speed railways traffic network construction, urbanization; discussing innovative technologies for soil ecology remediation of roadside slopes, city high steep rock slopes, etc. by taking into account a large number of soil ecology remediation engineering practices as examples; and providing a technical support system for ecology remediation of erosive soils in infrastructure construction in South China. After the construction of highways and high-speed railways, large tracts of soil ecology alongside the highways or railways were disturbed or damaged. About 70% of the soils existed in the form of slope, complete in soil structure and profile feature. Subjected to long term exposure, those bare slopes tend to generate large volumes of runoffs of water and sediment. The road or railway construction projects are often laid out linearly, stretching over a wide range of bio-climate zones with zonal climate interlaced with stereo climate. So in restoring vegetation on the slopes, shrubs, leguminous plants and plants of local varieties should be used as mainstay. Such vegetation integrating trees, shrubs, grass and vine, which mutually supplement each other in plant shape, forming a harmonious landscape. Urban steep rock slopes often result from explosions in engineering and lack such basic conditions as soil, water, nutrient, for plants to survive. Revegetation on such slopes is costly and technically does not have much choice. The technique of V type groove coupled mulching with nets fixed with bolts on the slopes and spraying suspension of grass seeds can be used to restore soil ecological landscape. This is a quite mature inventive technique for restoration of soil ecology on steep rock slopes in China.
徐国钢,程 睿,赖庆旺,朱兆华,孙吉雄.中国南方基础工程建设中土壤生态修复技术体系与实践[J].土壤学报,2015,52(2):381-389. Xu Guogang, Cheng Rui, Lai Qingwang, Zhu Zhaohua, Sun Jixiong. Soil ecology remediation technical system and its practice in infrastructure construction in South China[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2015,52(2):381-389.复制