Supported by the National Key Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2012BAD14B18)
以添加了改良剂的退化黄壤为研究对象，通过种植莴笋―空心菜―莴笋的盆栽试验，对比分析添加生物质灰渣改良剂与其他改良剂对蔬菜产量、土壤养分的影响，并进一步研究了不同改良剂处理下，退化土壤下渗水养分状况，以期为综合评价改良剂的修复效果提供科学依据。结果表明：（1）NPKH（氮磷钾化肥配施灰渣）和NPKW（氮磷钾化肥配施生物质肥）处理的莴笋产量增幅最大；（2）经改良剂处理的退化土壤有机质的含量和pH提高，随种植时间增加，土壤有机质含量均下降，但NPKH处理的下降幅度最小，其次为NPKC（氮磷钾化肥配施草炭）处理；各改良剂处理对碱解氮的影响差异并不明显，NPKH处理较其他处理能显著提高土壤有效磷（P）、速效钾（K）含量，其中有效P较NPK（单施化肥）处理提高了190.0% ~ 242.9% ；（3）单施化肥在退化土壤上易造成氮素的流失（总氮（TN）流失浓度22.08 ~ 39.06 mg L-1），NPKH、NPKW和NPKC处理的下渗水TN浓度均低于其他处理；NO3?-N是土壤氮素损失的主要形式，其变化趋势与TN较一致，呈极显著的相关关系（P<0.01， r=0.869）；在整个盆栽过程中，土壤下渗水总磷（TP）、可溶性磷（DP）浓度呈极显著的相关性（P<0.01， r=0.892），DP浓度占TP的60%以上；NPKH处理中的灰渣含有大量的磷元素，除供作物生长外，部分会随水流失，其下渗水中TP和DP分别为0.70 ~ 1.35 mg L-1和0.67 ~ 1.27 mg L-1，明显高于其他处理，易造成水体富营养化。
Soil degradation caused by irrational land utilization has greatly threatened sustainable development of the world agriculture. In degraded soil aggregates are readily crushable or breakable and the increasing amount of small-sized aggregates affects stability of the soil structure. In recent years, soil erosion led by soil degradation affects the lives of thousands of millions of people around the world. Biomass ash, a combustion product of agricultural wastes, is low in pH, porous in structure and rich in phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients. Its use as soil amendment can not only improve soil physical and chemical properties and yield of crops but also reduce incidence of crop diseases. Therefore, biomass ash is a new type of green and potentially valuable material that can be used to improve soil quality. In this study, saw-dust ash prepared in an incinerator at 800 ~ 900 ℃ was selected as biomass ash (H). Besides this, other soil amendments including lime (S), lime with zeolite (SF), biological fertilizer (W), plant ash (C), were used, separately, in addition to chemical fertilizer (NPK) in a pot experiment using degraded yellow soil from the Wulong Fairy Hill area in Chongqing for comparison. A lettuce - spinach - lettuce rotation system was adopted to determine effects of the soil amendments on yield and quality of the vegetable and soil fertility as well as on nutrient contents in soil leachate. The aim of this study is to provide scientific basis for comprehensive evaluation of effects of the soil amendments ameliorating degraded yellow soil. Results showed as follows: (1) The effects of the soil amendments varied significantly from one another. Treatments NPKH and NPKW were higher than all the others in lettuce yield. The use of soil amendments in addition to chemical fertilizer helped reduceNO3?-N content in lettuce as compared with the use of Chemical fertilizer alone, the content of amino acids in lettuce was the highest in Treatment NPKH; (2) The effects on the degredated soil also differed with type of amendment. The use of soil amendments increased soil organic matter and pH. The content of soil organic matter decreased with the planting going on, but the decrease was the least in Treatment NPKH, which was followed by Treatment NPKC. The effects of the amendments on alkalytic N did not differ much, but the effect of raising soil available P and available K was the highest in Treatment NPKH, with the effect on soil available P in particular, being 190.0% ~ 242.9% higher than that in Treatment NPK. (3) The use of chemical fertilizer alone in degraded soil may easily lead to N loss, which may amount to 22.08 ~ 39.06 mg L-1 in total N (TN). The leachates from Treatments NPKH, NPKW and NPKC were lower than those from the others in TN concentration. NO3?-N was the main form of soil nitrogen lost with leachate, and similar in trend and very closely related to TN (P<0.01, r=0.869). During the pot experiment, Total phosphorus (TP) and disissoluble phosphorus (DP) concentrations in the leachates displayed significant correlationship (P<0.01, r=0.892). DP accounted for more than 60% of TP in concentration. In Treatment NPKH, as ash per se contained a large volume of P, besides the portion absorbed by the crops, a portion was lost with leachate. The concentration of TP and DP in the leachate from Treatment NPKH reached 0.70 ~ 1.35 mg L-1 and 0.67 ~ 1.27 mg L-1, respectively, significantly higher than those in the leachates from the other treatments’, thus posing a risk of eutrophying the nearby waterbody.
黄 容,高 明,汪文强,刘彬彬,刘 江.不同改良剂对退化黄壤及其下渗水养分的影响[J].土壤学报,2016,53(3):663-674. DOI:10.11766/trxb201509280423 HUANG Rong, GAO Ming, WANG Wenqiang, LIU Binbin, LIU Jiang. Effects of Different Soil Amendments on Degraded Yellow Soil and Nutrients in Leachate[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2016,53(3):663-674.复制