the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41271299), the Northwest A&F University National Foundation of College Students Innovation Project (No. 20140712004) and Special-Funds Scientific Research Programs of State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau (A314021403-C2)
改良土壤物理性质是提高土壤抗侵蚀能力的主要途径之一。通过人工模拟降雨试验、风蚀试验和野外原位观测试验，研究了不同玉米秸秆汁土壤改良剂喷施方式下黄绵土抗侵蚀能力的改良效果，探讨了玉米秸秆汁防治土壤侵蚀的机理。结果表明，玉米秸秆汁能有效防治黄绵土的水蚀和风蚀。在模拟降雨条件下，喷施玉米秸秆汁的试验处理，黄绵土溅蚀量较对照处理降低24.7%~78.3%，黄土坡面的径流量和片蚀量分别降低40.0%~43.3%和20.9%~34.5%；在天然降雨条件下，无论是短历时低强度或长历时低强度的降雨类型，还是短历时高强度的降雨类型，喷施玉米秸秆汁的试验处理，黄土坡面的径流量和片蚀量较对照处理明显减少，二者的减少幅度分别介于26.3%~62.1%和58.3%~72.0%之间；在不同风速下，玉米秸秆汁可使黄绵土的风蚀量降低24.5%~64.6%。此外，喷施玉米秸秆汁后的静置时间及翻耕与否对不同类型的侵蚀也有重要影响。喷施玉米秸秆汁可有效提高黄绵土的抗剪强度、硬度及大团聚体的百分含量，从而降低土壤侵蚀量。施用玉米秸秆汁后，黄绵土静水崩解量降低了97.4%~98.5%、土壤抗剪强度增加了97.9%~140.0%、土壤硬度增加了11.4%~127.5%；<0.25 mm团聚体降低了46.9%~51.6%；>2 mm团聚体增加了88.1%~129.7%。玉米秸秆汁是一种良好的防治坡面水蚀和风蚀的土壤改良剂，在施用玉米秸秆汁时，应尽量一次喷施完毕并避免人为土壤扰动。
【Objective】Modifying soil physical properties is an important approach to improving soil anti-erodibility. As by-product of some industries, corn stalk sap is often discharged as waste. Recent studies have demonstrated that spraying corn stalk sap in the field may control sheet erosion. However, little is available in literature regarding effects of corn stalk sap controlling splash erosion and wind erosion. 【Method】In this study, a new soil amendment consisting 95%～97% corn stalk sap and 3%～5% preservative (sodium benzoate) was tested in a field subjected to artificial rainfalls, winds and in situ observation to explore its effects of controlling splash, sheet, and wind erosion of loessial soil and their mechanisms. The experiment was designed to have two treatments for ingredient of the spray (corn stalk sap and tap water, the same in spraying volume), two treatments for standing time after spraying (7 and 14 d) and two treatments for soil tillage condition (with and without manual plough). 【Result】Results show that corn stalk sap was quite effective in controlling water and wind erosion of loessial soil. Under simulated rainfalls, it reduced splash erosion by 24.7%～78.3%, runoff by 35.3%～45.3%and sheet erosion by 20.9%-～34.5%. Under natural rainfalls, the effects varied rainfall pattern. When the rain was short in duration and low in intensity its effects reached the highest, with runoff and sheet erosion reduced by 62.1% and 72.0%. But when the rain was long in duration and high in intensity, it reduced runoff and sheet erosion by 26.3%and 58.3% and when the rain was short in duration and high in intensity, it did by 41.0% and 69.6%, respectively. Under the same standing time and soil tillage condition, its effect of reducing sediment yield was higher than that of reducing runoff. Under the condition of 6, 8 and 14 m s-1 in wind speed, it reduced wind erosion by 25.0%～64.6%, 31.0%～52.9% and 24.5%～43.2%, respectively, as compared with those in the control treatments. Manual tillage significantly increased water and wind erosion. Besides the effects of spraying corn stalk sap on various types of erosion varied with standing time and tillage. By increasing soil shear strength and soil hardness, promoting formation of soil micro-aggregates, spraying corn stalk sap reduced soil erosion of any types. After spraying corn stalk sap, soil disintegration decreased by 97.4%～98.5%; soil shear strength and soil hardness increased by 98.1%～171.2% and 11.4%～127.5%, respectively; proportion of soil aggregates with diameter < 0.25 mm decreased by 46.9%～51.6%; and proportion of soil macro-aggregates with diameter > 2 mm increased by 88.1%～129.7%. 【Conclusion】Corn stalk sap is proved to be a practical soil amendment for control of water and wind erosion of the soil. It is, therefore, suggested that spraying of corn stalk sap be finished without suspending, so as to avoid any further human disturbance of the soil sprayed with corn stalk sap.
覃 超,郑粉莉,刘沛峰,徐锡蒙,吴红艳,汪怡珂.玉米秸秆汁土壤改良剂对黄绵土抗侵蚀能力的影响[J].土壤学报,2017,54(2):367-378. DOI:10.11766/trxb201606130213 QIN Chao, ZHENG Fenli, LIU Peifeng, XU Ximeng, WU Hongyan, WANG Yike. Effect of A New Soil Amendment — Corn Stalk Sap on Loessial Soil Anti-erodibility[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(2):367-378.复制