the National Natural Science Foundation of China ; the Science and Technology Development Project of Jilin Province ; the National Undergraduate Innovation Project of Jilin Agricultural University
运用元素和红外光谱分析研究了暗棕壤长期施用马粪（每3年施肥1次）、施低量化肥和马粪配施高量化肥对水稳性大团聚体（>2 mm和2~0.25 mm）、微团聚体（0.25~0.053 mm）和粉/黏粒粒级（<0.053 mm）中腐殖物质－胡敏酸（HA）的分布及其结构特征的影响，探讨施肥对农田土壤肥力的贡献及其团聚体的固碳机制。施用马粪和马粪配施高量化肥分别提高（49.06%）和降低（31.04%）了2~0.25 mm 大团聚体比例，3种施肥措施均提高了土壤有机碳（SOC）数量，但对土壤HA数量影响不显著。不同施肥措施对不同粒级团聚体中HA的分子结构特征影响不同，3种施肥措施均降低了2~0.25 mm大团聚体HA的缩合度，芳香性增加；微团聚体HA缩合度降低，脂族性增强；施用马粪提高了粉/黏粒HA的缩合度和脂族性，马粪配施高量化肥提高了粉/黏粒HA的缩合度和芳香性，施用低量化肥，粉/黏粒HA缩合度下降，芳香性提高。因此，长施马粪提高了土壤SOC数量，促进2~0.25 mm大团聚体的形成，大团聚体中HA的稳定性提高，利于土壤固碳，而0.25~0.053 mm微团聚体和<0.053 mm 粉/黏粒HA的活性增强，利于土壤肥力供给，这些团聚体是评估长施马粪对腐殖质质量产生影响的重要粒级。
【Objective】Contributions of long-term fertilization to soil fertility and carbon sequestration mechanism of aggregates in dark brown soil were explored. 【Method】A long-term field experiment was established to study effects of fertilization on contents and composition of humic substabce—humic acid (HA) in aggregates of dark brown soil, using element analysis and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra. The experiment was designed to have four treatments in fertilization regime, i.e. no fertilizer (CK); horse manure (M) (once 3 year−1); low-level chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers (N1P1); and horse manure combined with high-level chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (M+N2P2). Soil samples collected from the treatments were wet-sieved for macroaggregates (>2 mm and 2~0.25 mm), microaggregates (0.25~0.053 mm) and silt/clay fraction (<0.053 mm). 【Result】The soil aggregates in the dark brown soil were composed mainly of microaggregates, which were the lowest in content of soil organic carbon (SOC) and HA, while macroaggregates (>2 mm) the highest. Long-term application of horse manure significantly increased the proportion of macroaggregates (2~0.25 mm) or by 49.06% in Treatment M, but decreased by 31.04% in Treatment M+N2P2. Treatment N1P1 did not have much effect on aggregates composition. Application of either horse manure or chemical fertilizers increased SOC content, but did not have much impact on content of HA. In Treatment CK, HA in macroaggregates (2~0.25 mm) was quite lower in condensation degree, but the highest in oxidation degree and aliphaticity, while HA in microaggregates the highest in condensation degree, aromaticity, “age” and stability. Compared with Treatment CK, all the other treatments (i.e., M, N1P1, M+N2P2) reduced the condensation degree, increased the contents of aliphatic hydrocarbon carbon (C) and aromatic-C and enhanced aromaticity as the result of decreased ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbon-C to aromatic-C (aliphatic hydrocarbon-C/aromatic-C ratio) in the HA in macroaggregates, while reducing the condensation degree and increasing the contents of aliphatic hydrocarbon-C, and aromatic-C, and the ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbon-C/aromatic-C , and hence aliphaticity of the HA in microaggregates. In the experiment field, molecular structure of HA of silt/clay fractions varied with the treatment. Compared with CK, Treatment M increased aliphatic hydrocarbon-C and reduced aromatic-C in content and as a result, increased aliphatic hydrocarbon-C/aromatic-C ratio, condensation degree and aliphaticity of the HA. In Treatment M+N2P2, the HA in aggregates of silt/clay fractions increased in condensation degree and aromaticity as the result of increased content of aromatic-C and decreased aliphatic hydrocarbon-C/aromatic-C ratio. Moreover in Treatment N1P1, the HA in aggregates of silt/clay fractions decreased in condensation degree, aliphatic hydrocarbon-C and aromatic-C contents and aliphatic hydrocarbon-C/aromatic-C ratio, and as a result, increased in aromaticity. 【Conclusion】 Long-term application of horse manure increases the content of SOC, promotes formation of 2~0.25 mm macroaggregates, contributes favorably to stabilization of the HA in macroaggregates, thus helping carbon sequestration. In addition, it also enhances activity of the HA in microaggregates (0.25~0.053 mm) and aggregates of silt/clay fractions (<0.053 mm), which contributes to soil fertility supply. These aggregates can be used as important indicators for evaluating effects of long-term application of horse manure on quality of humic substance in the soil.
关 松,窦 森,马丽娜,温晓辉,周 鑫,刘金华,王 研,徐雅婧.长施马粪对暗棕壤团聚体腐殖质数量和质量的影响[J].土壤学报,2017,54(5):1195-1205. DOI:10.11766/trxb201612280235 GUAN Song, DOU Sen, MA Lina, WEN Xiaohui, ZHOU Xin, LIU Jinhua, WANG Yan, XU Yajing. Effects of Long-term Application of Horse Manure on Quantity and Quanlity of Humic Substance in Aggregates of Dark Brown Soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(5):1195-1205.复制