欧美发达国家场地土壤污染防治技术体系概述
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环境保护部土壤环境管理司项目资助


Generalizaion of Technical Systems for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control in Developed Countries
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Supported by the Foundation of the Department of Soil Environment Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China

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    摘要:

    国际经验表明,科学完整的土壤污染防治技术体系是全面推进土壤质量保护和土壤污染防治工作的基础保障,尤其对处于起步阶段且面临诸多挑战的中国土壤污染防治工作,虽然任重而道远,却是土壤污染管理能力建设的必然。为有效预防和治理修复工业遗留场地的土壤污染问题,加快推动城市土地的安全与可持续利用,本文全面系统地阐述了美国、英国和其他欧洲发达国家场地土壤污染防治技术体系的要素构成及演变特点:各国土壤污染防治制度及管理方法异同并存,构建一套完整有效的土壤污染防治体系必须以基于风险的全过程可持续管理为原则,涵盖法律保障、技术体系和管理手段等三个相互关联、相互影响的要素方面。其中,法律法规是标准制定和措施执行的核心原则和关键导向;标准导则是加强法律法规可行性的细化、具象;管理手段是法律法规和标准导则实践层面的配套保障。欧美等发达国家完善的场地土壤污染防治体系对中国防治体系的构建具有非常重要的指导意义,借鉴发达国家成功经验,从中国土壤污染防治的现实需要和具体国情出发,提出了三元一体的“法律—技术—管理”土壤污染防治技术体系的发展方向和重要内容,该体系涵盖法律法规体系、技术标准体系和可持续管理体系三个方面。

    Abstract:

    International experience shows that a complete and scientific technical system for prevention and control of soil pollution is the foundation key to comprehensive promotion of protection of soil quality and protection and control of soil pollution, particularly in China where the work to prevent and control soil pollution is still at its starting stage and confronted a series of challenges. Although the responsibility is heavy and long-lasting, it is a must for building up soil pollution management capacity. In this sense, to effectively prevent and address the problem of severe soil pollution in deserted industrial sites, and promote safety and sustainable utilization of urban lands, this paper presents a comprehensive and systematic overview of the technical systems for prevention and control of soil pollution in the USA, UK and other European countries, including their elements, composition, evolution features, laws and regulations, technical guidelines and standards, and management system. Though the technical systems of these countries are quite similar, but do differ from each other in certain aspects. The establishment of a complete effective sets of soil pollution prevention and control systems must be based on the principle of end-to-end sustainable management of risks and encompass the three interrelated and mutually affected elements, i.e. legal support, technical system and management means. Laws and rules are the core principles and key guidance in standard formulation and measure enforcement; standard guidelines further detail and specify feasibilities of the laws and rules; and management means are assorted guarantees of the laws, rules and standard guidelines at the practice level. The perfect site soil pollution prevention and control systems of the developed countries may serve as reference of great guiding significance to China in building its soil pollution prevention and control system. By referring to the successful experience of the developed countries, and proceeding from the actual needs and specific national conditions, this paper elaborated development direction and important contents of a "legislation - technology - management" integrated soil pollution prevention and control system.

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陈卫平,谢 天,李笑诺,王若丹.欧美发达国家场地土壤污染防治技术体系概述[J].土壤学报,2018,55(3):527-542. DOI:10.11766/trxb201712130487 CHEN Weiping, XIE Tian, LI Xiaonuo, WANG Ruodan. Generalizaion of Technical Systems for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control in Developed Countries[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(3):527-542.

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