Supported by the Foundation of the Department of Soil Environment Management, Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China
For long the soil resources of China have been confronted with over-exploitation, severe pollution and ever-increasing development pressures. The adverse impacts of soil pollution are subtle and escalating slowly, but already to such an extent that they have gravely affected human health, and sustainable utilization and fundamental ecological functions of the soil in modulating biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, supporting plant growth, and sustaining healthy human habitation. The promulgation of the "Action Plan for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control" in 2016 reflects great attention the Chinese government pays to the issue of soil protection. The plan laid down a systematic arrangement from the strategic point designed at the summit level to further promote development of soil pollution prevention and control project in China. To rapidly and effectively improve the soil environment, and guarantee safety of the agricultural production as well as human living habitats, centered around the general course and the core concepts of the plan, the paper has brought forth five guiding ideas and five basic principles for construction of a China-specific soil pollution prevention and control system. New modes of soil pollution prevention and control were explored through in-depth interpretation of the programmatic document and construction of land-use specific soil pollution prevention and control systems. The paper elaborated the theme, targets and support system of the conceptual framework of soil pollution prevention and control, and pointed out that the soil pollution prevention and control technology system should encompass prevention technology, monitoring technology, remediation technology and technology for safe exploitation of farmland resources, as well as the following aspects, pollution prevention and control, environment investigation, risk assessment, management and remediation, end-to-end monitoring and sustainable utilization. It could be concluded that the studies on soil pollution prevention and control system in China were centered mainly on studies of the legal system, neglecting system research on technical system and management system. Guided by the core idea of the “Action Plan for Soil Pollution Prevention and Control ", a systematic and effective soil pollution prevention and control system should: (1) unfold management, remediation and risk control of contaminated soil from the perspective of "Harnessing"; (2) prevent emerging of new pollution and migration and diffusion of existing pollution and enforce rigid supervision of pollution sources from the perspective of "prevention"; (3) form an end-to-end soil pollution prevention and control system supported by financing mechanism, public participation and other accessorial mechanisms; and (4) pay attention to uniqueness of each tract of land individually in function on the basis of the clear knowledge of status of soil pollution, e.g. soil pollution prevention and control is aimed at a healthy inhabitant environment and sustainable land use for construction land, and at ensuring quality of agricultural produce and human health for farmlands.
陈卫平,谢 天,李笑诺,王若丹.中国土壤污染防治技术体系建设思考[J].土壤学报,2018,55(3):557-568. DOI:10.11766/trxb201711300488 CHEN Weiping, XIE Tian, LI Xiaonuo, WANG Ruodan. Thinking of Construction of Soil Pollution Prevention and Control Technology System in China[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(3):557-568.复制