National Natural Science Foundation of China（No. 31701380） and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province（No. C2015301051）
为研究滨海盐碱地土壤水盐空间分布及运移变化对棉花光合生产和产量的影响，并探讨棉田地形和土壤容重对滨海盐碱地水盐空间分布的影响方式，在位置相近区域选取海拔和容重差异较大的4块棉田，于4—10月份测定土壤0~200 cm深度水分、盐分和pH等空间分布特征，分析其对棉花光合生产和产量的影响。研究表明，轻度盐碱棉田海拔较高，在141~160 cm处形成“高容重隔层”，土壤盐分和pH较低，雨季（7—8月份）土壤水分较低，生育后期（9—10月份）土壤水分明显高于中度盐碱棉田，棉花遭受盐碱胁迫较小，光合生产与水热资源吻合度高，长期处于物质积累活跃期；中度盐碱棉田较高的海拔和容重阻滞了土壤盐分和pH上升，在雨季盐碱胁迫得到解除，但棉花生育早期（4—6月份）和后期仍有明显盐碱胁迫，光合生产与光热资源丰富期吻合度较差；重度盐碱棉田海拔较低，容重差异未对水盐运移规律产生明显影响，长期处于高度盐碱胁迫之下，光合生产能力和产量水平低下。滨海盐碱地改良采用适当抬高地表高度并形成一定厚度的高容重“隔层”，增强土壤蓄排水能力，是一种效果持续并有利于作物光合生产的改良措施。
In order to study spatial distribution and movement of soil moisture and salt in coastal saline-alkali land and its effect on photosynthetic production and yield of cotton, and further discuss how elevation and soil bulk density affects spatial distribution of soil moisture and salt content in cotton fields of coastal saline-alkali soil, four cotton fields, quite different in elevation and soil bulk density were selected in a coastal saline-alkali area. Soil moisture and salt contents and soil pH in the 0~200 cm soil layers of the fields were monitored during the period of April~October and characterized for analysis of their influences on photosynthetic production and yield of cotton. Results show that in the cotton field, mild in soil salinity and alkalinity but high in elevation, a high-bulk-density interlayer was formed, 141~160 cm in depth, low in soil salinity and pH. In that cotton field, soil moisture content was low during the rainy season (July~August) and apparently higher than that in the cotton field moderate in soil salinity and alkalinity during the late cotton growing period (September~October). So the cotton in that field suffered less salt stress, and had its photosynthetic production highly coinciding with availability of prime hydrothermal resources and hence a long active dry matter accumulating period. In the cotton field, moderate in soil salinity and alkalinity and relatively high in elevation, higher elevation and bulk density inhibited rise of salt and pH, thus relieving the crop from salt stress during the rainy season, but salt stress was still quite obvious during the early and late cotton growth periods (April~June and September~October), so the crop did not have a good coincidence of its photosynthetic production with availability of prime hydrothermal resources. In the cotton field high in soil salinity and alkalinity and low in elevation, soil buld density did not seem to have much impact on water and salt movement, and the crop was subjected to a long-term high soil stress and hence low in capacity and yield of cotton. Therefore in ameliorating the coastal saline-alkali fields, it is advisable to raise them in elevation properly and help them form a high bulk density interlayer of a certain thickness, to improve them water storage and drainage capacity, which is believed to be a soil ameriolating measure contributive to photosynthetic production.
冯国艺,张 谦,祁 虹,雷晓鹏,王树林,王 燕,杜海英,梁青龙,林永增.滨海盐碱地水盐时空变化特征及对棉花光合生产的影响[J].土壤学报,2019,56(4):1012-1022. DOI:10.11766/trxb201807240311 FENG Guoyi, ZHANG Qian, QI Hong, LEI Xiaopeng, WANG Shulin, WANG Yan, DU Haiying, LIANG Qinglong, LIN Yongzeng. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Soil Moisture and Salinity and Its Effect on Photosynthetic Production of Cotton in Coastal Saline-Alkali Land[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2019,56(4):1012-1022.复制