the Field Station Alliance Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KFJ-SW-YW035) and the National Basic Work of Science and Technology of China (No. 2015FY10700)
农田土壤健康状况不仅影响作物产量和品质，还影响大气、水环境质量和生物安全，因而农田土壤健康评价应将土壤生产能力与生态环境效应结合考虑。基于土壤生态系统多功能性，将土壤功能归纳为作物生产、持水净水、养分运移与缓冲、碳固存及栖息地与多样性等5项功能。进一步针对每项功能，按照固有属性和动态属性两个方面分别选取基础项指标，同时考虑具有区域特点的威胁土壤功能发挥的限制项指标，并采用2个乘数来体现限制因子对固有和动态属性影响的差异性，共同构建农田生态系统土壤健康评价指标体系。以中国生态系统研究网络（CERN）内位于黄淮海平原的封丘、栾城和禹城3个实验站典型农田生态系统为例，应用所建立的指标体系，采用灰色关联分析法对其土壤健康状况进行综合评价。结果显示，3个农业生态实验站土壤健康状况总体相当且处于较高水平，但仍有所差异，表现为禹城 > 栾城 > 封丘，且作物生产功能与产量R2达到0.60，验证表明该评价体系比较合理。因此，基于多功能性的土壤健康评价方法可为进一步探究土壤健康长期变化趋势，实施土壤资源有效管理提供一定参考。
[Objective] Soil is an important carrier of cultivated land and the basis of agro-ecosystems. Farmland soil health not only affects crop production and food quality, but also regulates local climate and water environment quality, and sustains biological safety. Therefore, the assessment of farmland soil health should take into account both soil productivity and eco-environment effects. As a living ecosystem, soil varies in health status region, time and management practice. A reasonable assessment index system and a set of evaluation methods are the premise and foundation of soil health assessment. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the connotations of soil function and soil health, and to explore the actual state of farmland soil health in China.[Method] In this paper, the Fengqiu, Luancheng and Yucheng ecological experiment stations in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the most important grain producing area in China, were selected as objects for the study. Soil functions were generalized into five groups:crop production, water holding and purification, nutrient transport and buffering, carbon sequestration, and habitat and diversity. By referring to the German Müncheberg index scheme, evaluation indices were divided into basic ones and hazard ones. Out of each function, basic indices were selected in the light of their attributes, inherent or dynamic, separately, and got combined with region-specific restricting indices that might threaten soil functions to form a soil health assessment index system for agro-ecosystems. Among basic indices, the inherent attributes were classified or selected from climate, topography, hydrology and soil conditions, and the dynamic attributes were divided into three aspects including physical, chemical and biological indices. On considering that the restricting indices impact their inherent and dynamic properties to varying extent, two multipliers were defined for the two separately. In the end, based on the established soil health assessment index system, soil health of the three typical agro-ecosystems were assessed using the gray correlation analysis method.[Result] Results show:(1) The three agricultural ecological experiment stations all gained quite high soil health scores in the assessment, but still differed slightly, showing an order of Yucheng > Luangcheng > Fengqiu; (2) Farmland management methods also affect soil health, so the farmlands with no fertilizer applied were certainly lower than fertilized ones in productivity; in the Yucheng station, No.2 auxiliary plot applied with fertilizer and straw was the highest in soil health score among all the comprehensive and auxiliary observation fields; and (3) R2 between the crop production function and the maize yield reached 0.60.[Conclusion] (1) On the whole, the typical farmlands of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain are fairly good in soil health, displaying an order of Yucheng > Luancheng > Fengqiu. (2) By referring to the Müncheberg index scheme, the revised soil health assessment framework has assigned different multipliers to the inherent and dynamic properties, which proves to be quite reasonable. So the multi-functionality-based soil health assessment system may serve as reference for further exploring trends of long-term evolution of soil health, and implementing effective management of soil resources.
杨颖,郭志英,潘恺,王昌昆,潘贤章.基于生态系统多功能性的农田土壤健康评价[J].土壤学报,2022,59(2):461-475. DOI:10.11766/trxb202006160306 YANG Ying, GUO Zhiying, PAN Kai, WANG Changkun, PAN Xianzhang. Farmland Soil Health Assessment Based on Ecosystem Multi-functionality[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(2):461-475.复制