不同改良措施对第四纪红壤酶活性的影响
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S156

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国家自然科学基金项目(41877061,41671308)、中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目和中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所基本科研业务费专项(BSRF202101)资助。


Effects of Different Ameliorative Measures on the Enzyme Activities of Quaternary Red Soil
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National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos.41877061, 41671308), and the Science and Technology Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (No.CAAS-ASTIP-2016-IEDA)

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    摘要:

    红壤是我国重要的土壤类型之一,其耕地地力低下问题亟待解决。探究不同改良措施影响下红壤地力提升效果,对实现中低产田可持续利用具有重要意义。本研究以湖南第四纪红黏土发育的旱地红壤为研究对象,分析了休闲(F)、不施肥(CK)、单施无机肥(NPK)、无机肥配秸秆还田(NPKS)、无机肥配施生石灰(NPKL)、无机肥配施骨粉有机肥(NPKA)和无机肥配施生物有机肥(NPKC)等改良措施下不同土层和改良年限土壤中pH及养分含量的变化,并利用微孔板荧光法比较了土壤中碳氮磷循环相关酶活性的差异。结果表明,不同改良措施显著影响土壤养分及酶活性。与CK相比,2020年NPKC处理0~20 cm土层中有机质(SOM)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)和有效磷(AP)含量分别提高了73%、29%、61%和1 847%,同时该处理也显著增加了参与碳循环α-1,4-葡糖苷酶(αG)、β-1,4-葡糖苷酶(βG)、β-1,4-木糖苷酶(βX)、纤维二糖水解酶(CBH)和参与氮循环β-1,4-N-乙酰基氨基葡萄糖酐酶(NAG)活性。相关分析表明,SOM与αG、βG、βX、CBH和NAG酶活性呈显著正相关(P<0.01),pH与酸性磷酸酶(ACP)活性呈显著负相关(P<0.01)。改良措施对0~20 cm土层酶活性的影响大于20~40 cm。2019年,NPKA处理0~20 cm土层中CBH酶活性较CK提高了352%,而在20~40 cm土层中CBH酶活性仅较CK提高了2%。此外,不同改良措施土壤中ACP酶活性也呈现出随改良年限增加而增加的趋势。综上可知,无机肥配施有机物料显著提升红壤养分状况,改善土壤酶活性,可作为贫瘠红壤地力提升的有效改良措施。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] Red soil is one of the important soil types in China. Its low fertility is a problem for agricultural output. Exploring the effect of different improvement measures on soil fertility is integral for realizing sustainable use of middle and low yield fields.[Method] In this study, dryland red soils derived from Quaternary red earth were collected from a field experiment in Yueyang, Hunan Province and used to measure the changes in soil pH and nutrient contents across different soil layers and years of different treatments. These treatments included fallow (F), no fertilizer control (CK), a single application of inorganic fertilizer of nitrogen, phosphate, and kalium (NPK), inorganic fertilizer combined with straw-return (NPKS), inorganic fertilizer combined with lime (NPKL), inorganic fertilizer combined with amendments of organic crushed-bones (NPKA), and inorganic fertilizer combined with commercial bio-organic fertilizer (NPKC). We also compared the activity of enzymes related to carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles in this soil using the microplate fluorescence method.[Result] Some treatments significantly affected soil nutrients and enzyme activities. Soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and available phosphorus (AP) in the 0-20 cm soil layer treated with NPKC in 2020 increased by 73%, 29%, 61%, and 1 847%, respectively, relative to the control. This treatment also significantly increased the enzyme activities of the enzymes that participate in the carbon cycle, including α-1, 4-glucosidase (αG), β-1, 4-glucosidase (βG), β-1, 4-xylosidase (βX), and cellobiohydrolase (CBH). Also, the activity of β-1, 4-N-acetylglucosamine (NAG), which is involved in the nitrogen cycle, was increased. Correlation analysis showed that SOM was significantly positively correlated with enzyme activities of αG, βG, βX, CBH, and NAG (P < 0.01). Additionally, the pH value was significantly negatively correlated with acid phosphatase (ACP) activity (P < 0.01). The effect of improvement measures on the enzyme activity of 0-20 cm soil layer was greater than on deeper layers. In 2019, compared with the control, NPKA treatment increased CBH enzyme activity in the 0-20 cm soil layer by 352%, but only by 2% in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Besides, ACP enzyme activity in the soil also showed a trend of increasing with years of treatment.[Conclusion] The combination of inorganic fertilizer and organic materials can significantly improve the nutrient status and soil enzyme activity in red soils. This can be used to efficiently improve the fertility of barren red soil.

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赵婧,王亚男,曾希柏,文炯,温云杰,吴翠霞,郑重.不同改良措施对第四纪红壤酶活性的影响[J].土壤学报,2022,59(4):1160-1176. DOI:10.11766/trxb202008100444 ZHAO Jing, WANG Yanan, ZENG Xibai, WEN Jiong, WEN Yunjie, WU Cuixia, ZHENG Zhong. Effects of Different Ameliorative Measures on the Enzyme Activities of Quaternary Red Soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(4):1160-1176.

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