中国耕地表层土壤重金属污染状况评判及休耕空间权衡
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Q938.1+1

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国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD06B02)和中国国土勘测规划院外协科技项目(2018041)共同资助


Identifying the Status of Heavy Metal Pollution of Cultivated Land for Tradeoff Spatial Fallow in China
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Supported by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China(No. 2015BAD06B02)and the External Coordination Project of China Land Survey and Planning Institute (No. 2018041)

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    摘要:

    耕地污染影响食品安全和公众健康,如何科学治理已刻不容缓。实行耕地轮作休耕对促进耕地休养生息、推进农田土壤治理修复和保障农业绿色发展具有重要意义。近几年一些地区已率先开展休耕试点,但“休多少”、“休哪里”、“怎么休”等重大管理问题并未得到解决。为此,构建了中国耕地表层土壤重金属污染状况数据库,基于土壤重金属污染水平、土壤综合质量影响指数及其潜在生态风险,从国家尺度上依据休耕迫切性制定空间权衡规则,划分为急切必休区(I)、常规必休区(II)、严控轮休区(III)和一般轮休区(IV) ,并建议按等级实施差异化休耕模式。结果表明:(1)中国耕地表层土壤重金属浓度点位超标率呈现出Cd>As>Ni>Hg>Zn>Pb>Cu>Cr;(2)中国耕地土壤总体上处于未受影响状态,重度超标占1.71%,潜在生态风险指数属于极强生态风险仅为0.29%;(3)土壤重金属污染必须休耕的占全部耕地面积的15.58%,其中I、II和III级分别占0.77%、1.53%和3.26%,且相对集中于河南和湖南。本研究有助于精准把握全国耕地表层土壤重金属污染状况及休耕的迫切性,为耕地污染治理及休耕时空配置提供依据。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] Farmland pollution affects national food safety and public health. From the perspective of soil pollution, clarifying the scale and spatial layout of fallow land at the national scale is of great importance. To restore heavy metal-contaminated farmland soils and ensure green development of agriculture, an urgent scientific solution is needed for soil pollution. In recent years, fallow has been pioneered as a means of recuperation and management of polluted farmland. However, some important management issues such as how much farmland should be fallowed, location of the fallow area, and how to fallow are yet to be defined at the national scale.[Method] In this study, we constructed a database of heavy metal pollution in Chinese farmland soils which comprised of 6 490 sample data from 2 343 farmland locations. These data were extracted from 569 published papers on the topic of farmland heavy metal pollution (Including combined pollution and single heavy metal pollution, such as Ni, Hg, As, etc.), published from 2000 to 2018 on Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We assessed heavy metal pollution, the influence index of soil comprehensive quality, and the potential ecological risk to identify the spatial distribution of fallow priority grades, including urgent-fallow zone (I), regular-fallow zone (II), controlled-rotation zone (III), and general-rotation zone (IV).[Result] The results showed that the excessive concentration rates of heavy metals was Cd (18.03%)>As (2.95%)>Ni (2.26%)>Hg (1.55%)>Zn (1.42%)>Pb (1.34%)>Cu (0.49%)>Cr (0.10%). The proportions of soil environmental quality index such as severely, moderately and slightly exceeded were 1.71%, 3.89% and 23.84%, respectively. Also, the ratio of extremely strong and very strong potential ecological risk accounted for 0.29% and 2.89%. The ratio of the fallow area in China due to soil heavy metal pollution is 15.58%, of which the proportions of level I, II and III are 0.77%, 1.53% and 3.26%, respectively. Level I fallow areas are mainly distributed in 8 provinces of China including Henan, Hunan, Yunnan, Anhui etc. Additionally, fallow areas are mainly distributed in Henan and Hunan province, followed by Liaoning and Shandong province.[Conclusion] To promote the remediation of heavy metal pollution in Chinese surface soils, the implementation of differentiated fallow strategies for farmland areas with different pollution levels is recommended. This study shows the status of heavy metal pollution in farmland soils and spatially identified the urgency of fallowing areas in China. It also provides theoretical support for controlling farmland soil pollution and fallow space-time allocation in China.

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曾思燕,于昊辰,马静,刘俊娜,陈浮.中国耕地表层土壤重金属污染状况评判及休耕空间权衡[J].土壤学报,2022,59(4):1036-1047. DOI:10.11766/trxb202009270541 ZENG Siyan, YU Haochen, MA Jing, LIU Junna, CHEN Fu. Identifying the Status of Heavy Metal Pollution of Cultivated Land for Tradeoff Spatial Fallow in China[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(4):1036-1047.

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