松嫩平原盐碱化人工草地土壤与植被群落空间变异特征研究
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S153.6+1

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国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501200)和国家自然科学基金项目(41571210,41771250,41701335)资助


The Spatial Variations of Saline-alkali Artificial Grassland on the Songnen Plain
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    摘要:

    松嫩草地由于受太平洋季风气候的影响,具有较好的水热条件,且地势平坦,非常适宜畜牧业的机械化发展。在过去的几十年间,松嫩草地物种丰富度较高,优质的牧草以多年生的羊草为主,且在植被下形成了肥力较高的黑土。然而,松嫩草地独特的地形与高矿化度的地下水,导致了盐渍土与黑土接壤,因此松嫩草地生态环境较为脆弱。此外,由于草地的过度利用,导致了松嫩草地发生退化与盐碱化,进而使得草地生产力降低。较低的草地生产力已成为限制该区域畜牧业发展的主要因素,而草地生产力与土壤水盐动态密切相关。故本研究以松嫩盐碱化人工草地为研究对象,采用经典统计学与地统计学相结合的方法,对松嫩平原西部地区的盐碱化人工草地土壤理化性质以及牧草生物学-生态学性质的空间变异特征进行研究。结果表明,0~15 cm和15~30 cm层土壤的pH、电导率(EC)、总碱度(TA)、以及土壤质量含水量(MWC)具有中度或强空间变异。此外,试验区域的生物多样性指数(SWI)、紫花苜蓿的株高(SH)、生物量干重(DM)与盖度(CD)均具有强烈的空间变异特征。回归分析结果表明,试验区域盐碱化人工草地紫花苜蓿产量可用公式Y (DM)=2699.73–276.496pH(7.17

    Abstract:

    [Objective] Grasslands in Songnen plain are propitious to the develop the mechanized-graziery due to its flat terrain and the climatic conditions, which influences by temperate continental monsoon climate. Moreover, influenced by the high plant coverage and diversity, black soil was developed, and the high quality forage species was dominated by Leymus chinensis in the past decades. However, the fragile eco-environment of Songnen grasslands could be impacted by the special topography, high salinity and shallow groundwater, and the parent material. Soil parameters are typically used to quantify the relationship between soil properties and forage yield and to identify the limiting factors of grassland productivity. Because of overgrazing and overdevelopment, the Songnen grasslands were degraded and salinized significantly. The husbandry was remarkable hindered by the low grassland productivity. The objectives of this study were:1) to investigate the spatial variation characteristics of soil physical and chemical properties; 2) to estimate the spatial variation characteristics of vegetation community; 3) to explore the potential linkages between dry yield of alfalfa and soil physical and chemical properties.[Method] The artificial grassland locates at the Xinfawopeng village of Baicheng City, which covers an area of 600 m×450 m. The soil sample points were set by grid method, with the spacing of each neighbor sample points was 50 m. The soil samples were collected from alfalfa artificial grassland from by cutting rings and soil auger in October 2017 and May 2018 for detecting the soil physico-chemical properties, meanwhile, the forage samples were collected in a quadrat of 1 m2 (1 m×1 m). All the soil samples were air-dried, ground and then passed through a 2-mm sieve for chemical properties. The 1:5 of soil-water extracts were used to determining soil pH, EC, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3, and CO32–. The spatial variations of soil properties, including soil mass water content (MWC), soil pH, EC, and total alkalinity (TA) were determined by classical statistics and geostatistics. Furthermore, the spatial variations of biological characteristics of artificial grassland, such as the Shannon-Wiener Index (SWI), dry yield (DY), shoot height (SH), and cover degree (CD) in the study area, were analyzed with classical statistics and geostatistics.[Result] At the depth of 0~30 cm, very high spatial variability of the EC and TA were found, however, the pH and MWC showed moderate spatial variations; The biological properties of the grassland community showed high spatial variations. Results of multiple linear regression (MLR-step wise) suggested that the alfalfa dry biomass (DM) could be predicted by (DM)=2699.73–276.496 pH (7.17< pH <9.76), which indicated that the soil pH influenced the alfalfa yield more than other soil properties.[Conclusion] The above results indicated that the soil physico-chemical properties of artificial grasslands in western Songnen pain were high and moderate spatial variations, and the alfalfa could not tolerance the pH higher than 9.76.

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杨洪涛,王志春,杨帆,安丰华,张璐.松嫩平原盐碱化人工草地土壤与植被群落空间变异特征研究[J].土壤学报,2022,59(4):1025-1035. DOI:10.11766/trxb202101110601 YANG Hongtao, WANG Zhichun, YANG Fan, An Fenghua, ZHANG Lu. The Spatial Variations of Saline-alkali Artificial Grassland on the Songnen Plain[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(4):1025-1035.

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