粉煤灰、砒砂岩对煤矿排土场土壤水分特性改良的试验研究
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1.中国科学院教育部水土保持与生态环境研究中心;2.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院

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Experimental study on the improvement of soil moisture characteristics of coal mine dump by fly ash and Arsenic sandstone
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1.Research Center for Soil and Water Conservation and Ecological Environment, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.School of Resources and Environment,Northwest A&3.F University

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    摘要:

    摘要:露天煤矿排土场土壤理化特性差直接影响复垦效果,改善土壤水分特性对排土场的复垦具有重要的理论与实践意义。本试验以内蒙古自治区的黑岱沟露天煤矿为对象进行土壤改良试验研究,将粉煤灰(F)、砒砂岩(S)作为添加物,对排土场土壤(L)进行3种组合处理(LF、LS、LFS)并设置不同的质量比例梯度,试验共设(L3F1、L4F1、L5F1、L1S1、L2S1、L3S1、L4S1、L5S1、L1F1S1、L2F1S1、L3F1S1、L4F1S1、L5F1S1)13种不同质量比的混合处理和(L、F、S)3种对照处理,采用离心机法测定各复配土壤在不同水吸力下的含水量,利用Gardner模型拟合并绘制其水分特征曲线,计算各复配土壤的比水容量、田间持水量、萎蔫系数、有效水含量。结果表明:(1)Gardner模型能够很好的拟合13种复配土壤的水分特征曲线,粉煤灰的添加使排土场土壤中的细土粒含量(粘粒、粉粒)增加了24.11%-37.19%,提高了土壤的持水性和供水性,添加砒砂岩能够改良土壤的持水性但不能改良供水性能。(2)排土场土壤、粉煤灰、砒砂岩质量比为1:1:1(L1F1S1)时持水性能最好,较排土场土壤提高了47.6%;排土场土壤、粉煤灰质量比为3:1(L3F1)时其供水性能最好,较排土场土壤提高了40.23%。(3)LF组合处理和LFS组合处理的田间持水量和有效水含量随着添加物比例的增加而提升,当排土场土壤、粉煤灰质量比为3:1(L3F1)时田间持水量最大为18.02%,排土场土壤、粉煤灰、砒砂岩质量比为1:1:1(L1F1S1)时有效水含量最大为13.1%。综上,粉煤灰、砒砂岩综合利用有利于煤矿排土场土壤水分特性的改良,且复配土壤的粘粒、粉粒含量在30%-35%范围内时,土壤的持水供水能力较好,在本试验中三者按1:1:1的质量比例进行复配效果最佳。

    Abstract:

    Abstract: 【Objective】Reclaimed soil in an open-air coal mine is highly infertile due to its poor physical and chemical characteristics. The reclamation methods usually improve soil moisture content which has important theoretical and practical significance for the reclaimed mine soil. 【Method】This experiment was conducted in the Heidaigou open-air coal mine in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, in which the following treatments were applied; fly ash, arsenic sandstone and dump soil. A certain mass ratio gradients were set, including 13 blended treatments denoted as L3F1, L4F1, L5F1, L1S1, L2S1, L3S1, L4S1, L5S1, L1F1S1, L2F1S1, L3F1S1, L4F1S1, L5F1S1, in which the L, F, S represented three kinds of controlled treatments. The volumetric water content of each compound soil under different water suctions was measured by the centrifuge method for the drawing of the water characteristic curve using the Gardner fitting model. The specific water capacity, field water capacity, wilting coefficient and effective water content of each treatment were also calculated. 【Result】The results showed that the Gardner model was appropriate to fit the water characteristic curves of the 13 compound soils. The addition of fly ash increased the content of fine soil particles (i.e., clay and silt) by 24.11% to 37.19%, respectively, and improved the water holding capacity and water supply of soil. Furthermore, the addition of arsenic sandstone improved the water holding capacity of soil but failed to improve the water supply performance. The water holding capacity of L1F1S1 treatment and water supply performance of L3F1 treatment was the best, which was 47.6% and 40.23% higher than that of the dump soil, respectively. The field water holding capacity and available water content of LF combined treatment and LFS combined treatment were enhanced with the increase of additive proportion. When the mass ratio of soil and fly ash in the dump was 3:1 (L3F1), the maximum field water holding capacity was 18.02%. On the other hand, the maximum available water content was 13.1% with the mass ratio of soil, fly ash and arsenic sandstone of 1:1:1 (L1F1S1). 【Conclusion】Overall, the comprehensive utilization of fly ash and arsenic sandstone is beneficial to improve the soil water characteristics of coal mine dump, and the soil water holding capacity and water supply capacity is better when the clay and silt contents of the soil are within the range of 30%-35%. In this experiment, the mass ratio of 1:1:1 is the best.

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郑鹏,党廷辉,薛江.粉煤灰、砒砂岩对煤矿排土场土壤水分特性改良的试验研究[J].土壤学报,,[待发表]
ZHENG Peng, DANG Ting-hui, XUE Jiang. Experimental study on the improvement of soil moisture characteristics of coal mine dump by fly ash and Arsenic sandstone[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,,[In Press]

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