不同磷肥调控措施下红壤磷素有效性和利用率的变化
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作者单位:

1.中国农业大学资源与环境学院;2.中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所/耕地培育技术国家工程实验室

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基金项目:

国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0200200)和国家自然科学基金项目(U19A2046,41977104)资助


Effects of Different Phosphorus Application Techniques on Phosphorus Availability in a Rape System in a Red Soil
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University;2.National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land / Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Fund Project:

Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFD0200200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Nos. U19A2046 and 41977104)

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    摘要:

    南方红壤区磷肥当季利用率仅为10%~25%,提高磷肥利用率是亟待解决的问题。通过两年田间试验,分析了不同磷肥品种(过磷酸钙、猪粪、钙镁磷肥、磷酸一铵、磷酸二铵)、磷肥梯度(常规施磷、减磷20%、减磷30%)以及调控措施(石灰、钙镁磷肥配施磷酸二铵、钙镁磷肥配施秸秆)对红壤磷素有效性和作物生长的影响,探索提高磷肥利用率的途径。结果表明,各磷肥品种间,以猪粪处理土壤有效磷、地上部生物量、磷肥累积利用率等指标最高,土壤有效磷较不施磷处理两年分别提高了32%和241%,地上部生物量较不施磷处理两年分别提高了73%和510%,两年的磷肥累积利用率分别为16.4%和26.5%;伴随磷肥用量的减少,土壤有效磷含量显著降低,而对油菜生长、磷肥利用率及磷肥农学效率无显著影响;与单施钙镁磷肥相比,钙镁磷肥配施磷酸二铵能显著提高油菜籽粒产量、土壤有效磷含量、磷肥累积利用率、磷肥农学效率、土壤磷素盈余量等指标。添加石灰可提高作物产量及土壤有效磷含量。油菜产量与土壤有效磷呈极显著正相关关系。上述结果表明,猪粪替代化学磷肥可达到减施增效、促进作物生长的目的,且以减磷30%为宜;钙镁磷肥配施磷酸二铵可推荐为磷肥调控措施。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Phosphorus (P) is an indispensable nutrient needed for plant growth and development and P is deficient, especially in the red soil region of South China. However, the unsuitable application of P fertilizer results in low use efficiency of the fertilizer, ranging from 10% to 25% in the current season in the region. This could result in P surpluses in soils, and runoffs and is one of the important nonpoint source pollutions of aquatic habitats and other water resources. Thus, it is important to investigate a suitable P fertilization in the region to improve P use efficiency and sustain crop yields. 【Method】A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang, Hunan Province, China. The effects of different phosphorus fertilizers (superphosphate, swine manure, calcium magnesium phosphate, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate), P application rates (conventional phosphorus application, phosphorus reduction 20%, phosphorus reduction 30%), and P combined with amendments (lime, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer combined with diammonium phosphate, or crop straw return) on phosphorus availability and crop growth in red soil were tested. 【Result】Of the different phosphorus fertilizers, swine manure induced the highest soil available phosphorus and aboveground biomass and P use efficiency in 2019. Also, under this treatment the crop yield in 2020 was significantly higher than that of other treatments. Compared with the control treatment, swine manure treatment significantly increased soil available phosphorus and aboveground biomass by 32% and 241%, respectively, in 2019, and by 73% and 510% in 2020. As P application rates decreased, the soil available P content was also significantly decreased. However there were no changes in rape seed yield, aboveground biomass, P use efficiency and phosphorus agronomy efficiency. Among them, 30% phosphorus reduction was the best treatment. Compared with a single application of calcium magnesium phosphate, the combined application of calcium magnesium phosphate and diammonium phosphate effectively improved crop yield, soil available phosphorus and phosphorus efficiency index to a certain extent. The treatment of calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer + diammonium phosphate had the best effect on the crop yield, soil available phosphorus, phosphorus fertilizer cumulative use efficiency, phosphorus agronomic efficiency and soil phosphorus surplus. The addition of lime improved crop yield, soil available phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer cumulative use efficiency , but did not reach a significant level as compared to superphosphate only treatment. There was a significant positive correlation between rape seed yield and soil available phosphorus. 【Conclusion】 From the above research results, we can conclude that the replacement of chemical phosphorus fertilizer by swine manure phosphorus could achieve the purpose of reducing application and increasing efficiency. Also the best amount of phosphorus fertilizer was a 30% reduction of conventional phosphorus application rate. The calcium magnesium phosphorus fertilizer as a P source should be applied combination with diammonium phosphate to supply P demand for crop growth in such weak acidic red soils.

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王一锟,蔡泽江,冯固.不同磷肥调控措施下红壤磷素有效性和利用率的变化[J].土壤学报,DOI:10.11766/trxb202104210207,[待发表]
WANG Yikun, CAI Zejiang, FENG Gu. Effects of Different Phosphorus Application Techniques on Phosphorus Availability in a Rape System in a Red Soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202104210207,[In Press]

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