土壤酶对重金属污染的响应及指示研究进展*
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作者单位:

1.中国科学院华南植物园退化生态系统恢复与管理重点实验室;2.南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室广州;3.中国科学院南京土壤研究所土壤环境与污染修复重点实验室;4.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院;5.广西大学林学院

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中图分类号:

S154.2

基金项目:

南方海洋科学与工程广东省实验室项目(广州)人才团队引进重大专项项目共同资助


Research progresses on soil enzymes as indicators of soil health and their responses to heavy metal pollution
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems,South China Botanical Garden,Chinese Academy of Sciences;2.Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory Guangzhou;3.CAS Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation,Institute of Soil Sciences,Chinese Academy of Sciences;4.College of Natural Resources and Environment,Northwest A F University;5.College of Forestry,Guangxi University

Fund Project:

Key Special Program for Introduced Talents Team of Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou)(GML2019ZD0408)

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    摘要:

    土壤酶在关键元素生物地球化学循环、动植物健康维持、环境污染净化等方面起着不可替代的重要作用,同时还是土壤污染程度评价的辅助指标之一。然而,由于土壤物理、化学和生物学性质的差异,以及研究方法的多样化,导致重金属与土壤酶活性之间的关系十分复杂,阻碍了土壤酶在土壤质量和健康评价中的应用。系统阐述了重金属污染对土壤酶的生态毒理效应,及其对土壤酶催化动力学特征的影响,构建了土壤-重金属-微生物对土壤酶作用的概念模型,并探讨未来的研究趋势和方向。研究表明:土壤酶活性测定高效、便宜,且对重金属污染敏感,是极具潜力的土壤重金属污染评价的生物学指标,但仅采用土壤酶活性可能高估或低估重金属的生态毒性,加之当前对土壤酶的选择、活性的测定均缺乏统一的标准,致使难以建立重金属毒性阈值与土壤理化性质或土壤重金属有效性之间的定量关系,最终导致土壤酶在土壤污染生态风险评价中存在争议。未来亟需通过新技术和数学模型,深入揭示不同类型土壤中酶对重金属胁迫的响应机理,构建土壤性质与毒性阈值关系的经验模型,可为加强土壤酶在土壤质量和健康评价中的应用提供重要的理论依据。

    Abstract:

    Soil enzymes play a vital role in the biogeochemical cycling of key elements, maintenance of animal and plant health, and decontamination of environmental pollution. The activities of soil enzymes can find application in the environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollution. However, the effects of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities varied with soil physicochemical and biological properties and the differences of research methods. Thus, these factors hinder the application of soil enzymes in the assessment of soil health and quality. This study systematically elaborates the eco-toxicological effects of heavy metal pollution on soil enzyme activities and the kinetic characteristics of soil enzyme catalytic reactions. We also constructed a conceptual diagram of soil enzymes in response to soil-heavy metals-microorganisms, proposed and discussed the future trends and directions in soil enzyme in the assessment of heavy metal pollution. Our results showed that soil enzymes are a potential biological index for the evaluation of soil heavy metal pollution, because the determination of soil enzyme activity is efficient and cheap, and soil enzyme activity is sensitive to heavy metal toxicity. However, soil enzyme activity may overestimate or underestimate the ecological toxicity of heavy metals as an individual indicator. Furthermore, there is no uniform standard on how to select soil enzyme as a general indicator to assess the toxicity of heavy metals in different soils. Also, it is difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between the ecological doses of heavy metals for soil enzyme activity and soil properties, which led to the arguments about its accuracy and applicability in the ecological risk of heavy metal pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to use new technologies and methods to uncover the reactive mechanisms of enzymes to heavy metal toxicity in different types of soils, and quantitatively analyze the relationship between soil properties and ecological doses of heavy metals based on kinetic parameters. This can strengthen the practical application of soil enzymes in the diagnosis of soil pollution by heavy metals.

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谭向平,何金红,郭志明,王紫泉,聂彦霞,叶清,和文祥,申卫军.土壤酶对重金属污染的响应及指示研究进展*[J].土壤学报,,[待发表]
TAN Xiangping, He Jinghong, Guo Zhiming, Wang Ziquan, Nie Yanxia, Ye Qing, He Wenxiang, Shen Weijun. Research progresses on soil enzymes as indicators of soil health and their responses to heavy metal pollution[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,,[In Press]

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