西南某矿区土壤重金属的人体生物有效性及健康风险评估
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1.西南林业大学生态与环境学院/环境修复与健康研究院;2.云南师范大学能源与环境科学学院

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*国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1800504)、国家林业和草原局林草科技创新青年拔尖人才项目(2020132613)和云南省创新团队项目(202005AE160017)资助


Human Bioavailability and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from a Mining Area of Southwest China
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Affiliation:

1.Institute of Environmental Restoration and Human Health, School of Ecology and Environment, Southwest Forestry University;2.School of Energy and Environment Science, Yunnan Normal University

Fund Project:

Supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2018YFC1800504), the Scientific and Technological Innovation Top Young Talents Project of National Forestry and Grassland Administration of China (No. 2020132613) and the Innovative Research Team of Yunnan Province, China (No. 202005AE160017)

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    摘要:

    利用生物可给性修正后土壤重金属经口摄入的人体健康风险值也可能被高估,而应用体内实际摄入剂量(生物有效性)作为健康风险评价指标将更为准确,但是基于生物有效性的矿区土壤重金属污染健康风险评估报道较少。以云南文山某矿区为研究对象,分析了5个土壤样点中镉(Cd)、铅(Pb)、锌(Zn)和铜(Cu)的含量,通过体外消化法测定了4种重金属的生物可给性,并结合BALB/c白变种实验室小鼠实验分析了重金属Cd的相对生物有效性(RBA),基于此探讨该矿区土壤重金属Cd、Pb、Zn和Cu对人体产生的健康风险。结果表明,本研究区域土壤Cd污染较为严重,含量为2.06 mg?kg?1。四种重金属的生物可给性在胃相中的范围分别为24.29%~50.55%、7.68%~17.87%、24.61%~32.18%、7.75%~37.87%,在肠相中分别下降至22.78%~44.32%、1.64%~5.22%、14.10%~28.11%、8.51%~31.49%。动物实验测得的Cd在肝脏中RBA为1.31%~48.39%,肾脏中为2.83%~8.58%,肝和肾复合器官中为4.60%~50.95%,且肝和肾复合器官是测定Cd-RBA较为理想的靶器官。基于目标重金属总量、生物可给性和生物有效性对该场地土壤进行的健康风险评估发现,利用生物可给性和生物有效性数据的人体健康风险评估显著低于基于总量的健康风险评估。综上,基于土壤中重金属总量的健康风险可能存在高估现象,建立基于人体生物有效性的健康风险评估方法将更为准确。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Ingestion of soil is a pathway of human exposure to several environmental contaminants, including several heavy metals. Risk assessment of soils has typically been performed on total concentrations of target heavy metals. However, it may overestimate the potential adverse effects. To refine exposure risk, bioaccessibility and bioavailability measurements have been employed in many studies. Bioaccessibility tests are used to measure the bioaccessible fractions of contaminants in soils while bioavailability evaluates the fraction of heavy metals that reach the systemic circulation. These tests are both considered accurate approaches to evaluate the potential health risk of contaminants. However, there are few studies on the health risk assessment of heavy metals from mining soils via bioavailability. 【Method】In this study, five soil samples from the mining area of Wenshan, Yunnan Province were collected and the levels of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu was detected using in vitro digestion method (SBRC), and the relative bioavailability (RBA) of Cd was determined by BALB/c mice models. The health risks of the four heavy metals in mining soils were assessed based on total, bioaccessible, and bioavailable data, respectively.【Result】The results showed that Cd pollution in this study area was serious, with the content being 2.06 mg?kg?1, which was 9.36 folds higher than the limit of soil background value in Yunnan. The bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu in the gastric phase was 24.29%-50.55%, 7.68%-17.87%, 24.61%-32.18%, 7.75%-37.87%, respectively, while in intestinal phase, they were 22.78%-44.32%, 1.64%-5.22%, 14.10%-28.11%, 8.51%-31.49%, respectively. As evident, the bioaccessibility of Cd was the highest among the four heavy metals. The RBA of Cd measured in vivo was 1.31%-48.39% in the liver, 2.83%-8.58% in the kidney, and 4.60%-50.95% in the liver and kidney. Compared with a single endpoint, Cd-RBA in the liver and kidney provided better repeatability and were ideal target organs for the determination of Cd-RBA. In vivo- in vitro correlation showed that the bioavailability of Cd determined by SBRC had a poor potential to predict Cd-RBA in contaminated soils from the mining area in China. Health risk assessment of the mining soil based on the target heavy metals, bioaccessibility and bioavailability revealed that the assessment using the total heavy metals had greater human health risk, while the data based on bioaccessibility and bioavailability showed a significantly reduced risk. 【Conclusion】The health risks assessment based on the total heavy metals in soil may be overestimated, and the establishment of a new method based on the bioavailability data will be more accurate. Our results provide a scientific basis for the health risk assessment of contaminated soils in China.

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保欣晨,马娇阳,徐武美,王豪吉,王成尘,向萍.西南某矿区土壤重金属的人体生物有效性及健康风险评估[J].土壤学报,2023,60(2). DOI:10.11766/trxb202107200287 BAO Xinchen, MA Jiaoyang, XU Wumei, WANG Haoji, WANG Chengchen, XIANG Ping. Human Bioavailability and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soils from a Mining Area of Southwest China[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2023,60(2).

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  • 收稿日期:2021-06-01
  • 最后修改日期:2021-10-18
  • 录用日期:2022-01-20
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-01-26
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