磷肥在旱地红壤上的后期效应及其作用机制
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S158.3

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国家自然科学基金项目(41861130357)资助


The Subsequent Effects of Phosphorus Fertilization in Upland Red Soils and the Underlying Mechanisms
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    摘要:

    红壤地区施入的磷肥很容易被吸附固定而留存于土壤中,降低磷肥利用效率,留存于土壤中的磷对土壤生态功能和作物养分供应的后续效应值得关注。基于旱地红壤长期施肥定位试验,探讨常规施肥处理(CK)以及短期施入不同磷肥量(P2O5,0、50、100、150和1 000 kg·hm–2)多年后土壤养分、土壤氮循环过程和作物产量的变化特征。通过多元统计分析方法探讨不同磷肥处理下,土壤全碳、全氮和微生物生物量碳和氮转化过程的潜在速率以及产量等因子间的相互关系及其与磷的后期效应的关系。结果表明,在短期投入高剂量磷肥(1 000 kg·hm–2,P1000)27年后,土壤全碳、全氮和微生物生物量碳与常规施肥处理相比无明显差异,但显著提高了土壤pH和氮循环相关过程速率,包括氮矿化速率(Nitrogen mineralization rate,Nmin)、固氮酶活性(Soil nitrogenase activity,SNA)、潜在硝化速率(Potential nitrification rate,PNR)(P <0.05),同时降低了净N2O排放潜能(Net N2O production rate,NN2O)(P<0.05)。与不施磷(P0)和短期投入低剂量磷肥处理(50,100,150 kg·hm–2)相比,P1000处理中,土壤有效磷(AP)、氮矿化速率、固氮酶活性、潜在硝化速率和潜在N2O产生速率(PN2O)分别增加了33.3%~76.4%、88.2%~388.1%、111.4%~4 826.3%、22.6%~152.4%和13.8%~78.9%(P <0.05),同时净N2O排放潜能也降低了64.6%~78.9%(P<0.05),表现出明显的磷后效,且在作物生长季更为明显。相关分析和冗余分析表明AP和pH是影响以上土壤生物化学活性最主要的因子。近三年作物平均产量在所有处理中无显著差异,但与土壤TP、AP和pH呈显著正相关;但在长期尺度上(1992—2019年),P1000处理相对于其他低磷处理累积增产效应达3%~23%。以上结果表明,酸性红壤中短期大量施用磷肥多年后,由于大量磷肥投入导致的土壤pH提升和磷的缓释效应,使得磷肥在促进土壤肥力、微生物活性和土壤氮循环转化活性方面表现出较明显的后期效应。

    Abstract:

    [Objective] The utilization efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer is generally low in agro-ecosystems as phosphorus is readily co-precipitated with iron and manganese oxyhydroxides, iron aluminides, or directly adsorbed to the soil minerals, particularly in the red soil ecosystem. Thus, understanding the subsequent effects of phosphorus retained in the soil on soil ecological function and crop nutrient supply is of significance to guide the management of phosphorus fertilization.[Method] Based on a long-term fertilization experiment in red upland soil, this study investigated the effect of the conventional fertilization (CK) and short-term phosphorus fertilizer input (at rates of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 1 000 kg·hm–2, P2O5) on soil nutrients, soil nitrogen cycle process and crop yields after 27 years. We evaluated the relationship between these factors and the residual effect of phosphorus using the multivariate statistical analysis method.[Result] Short-term P fertilizer addition at a high rate (1 000 kg·hm–2, P1000) had no significant effects on soil total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN) and microbial biomass (MBC) compared to the conventional fertilization treatment (CK). Also, it significantly increased soil pH, nitrogen mineralization rate (Nmin), soil nitrogenase activity (SNA), and potential nitrification rate (PNR) (P < 0.05), while it significantly decreased the net N2O emission potential (NN2O) (P < 0.05). Compared with the low phosphorus dosage treatments (50, 100, 150 kg·hm–2), P1000 significantly increased soil available phosphorus (AP), Nmin, SNA, PNR and potential N2O production rate (PN2O) by 33.3%-76.4%, 88.2%-388.1%, 111.4%-4 826.3%, 22.6%-152.4% and 13.8%-78.9%, respectively (P < 0.05), but significantly decreased the net N2O emission potential by 64.6%-78.9% (P< 0.05). These results suggest that the application of a high dosage of phosphorus fertilizer has a strong residual effect on soil microbial activity and nitrogen processes even after 27 years. Spearman correlation analysis and redundancy analysis showed that AP and pH were the most important factors affecting soil microbial activities. Maize yield in the recent three years showed no significant difference among all treatments but was significantly positively correlated with TP, AP and pH. In comparison to low phosphorus treatments, P1000 treatments showed a promotion effect of 3%-23% on maize yield based on the historical yield data during 1991—2019.[Conclusion] Our results reveal that the short-term application of a large amount of phosphorus fertilizer has significant positive effects on maintaining soil fertility, microbial activity, soil nitrogen cycle function activity and crop yield even after 27 years, owing to the promotion of soil pH and slow release of available phosphorus.

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石伟,张丽梅,王劲松,李聪平,顾朝令,赵会玉.磷肥在旱地红壤上的后期效应及其作用机制[J].土壤学报,2022,59(4):1100-1111. DOI:10.11766/trxb202106220680 SHI Wei, ZHANG Limei, WANG Jinsong, LI Congping, GU Chaoling, ZHAO Huiyu. The Subsequent Effects of Phosphorus Fertilization in Upland Red Soils and the Underlying Mechanisms[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(4):1100-1111.

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