秸秆还田配合化肥减施对潮土作物产量及土壤肥力的影响
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中国科学院南京土壤研究所

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国家自然科学基金项目(41807017)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项子课题(XDA24020104)资助


Effects of Straw returning instead of Chemical Fertilizer on Crop Yield and Soil Fertility in Fluvo-aquic Soil
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Institute of Soil Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences

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Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.41807017) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No.XDA24020104)

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    摘要:

    摘 要:针对我国粮食主产区化肥施用过量现象,由此导致肥料利用率降低、土壤质量退化、环境污染风险提高等一系列问题,本文于黄淮海平原潮土区设置大田试验,研究秸秆还田配合不同比例氮磷减施对土壤养分、作物产量、秸秆养分释放及土壤微生物的影响,以期明确在保证作物产量与土壤养分不流失的情况下,秸秆还田可以替代的化肥养分量,并揭示促进秸秆养分高效利用的微生物机制,为推行化肥减施行动提供依据。结果表明:与常规施肥相比,减氮30%或减磷50%对作物产量及土壤养分含量无显著影响;秸秆降解率在第一季达43.33%~53.11%,减氮30%或减磷50%可增加12.40%,两年后降解率达到63.41%~75.62%;减氮100%显著降低细菌真菌丰度、物种丰富度和多样性,而减磷影响较弱;减氮30%和减磷50%主要增加细菌中芽单胞菌门(Gemmatimonadetes)longimicrobiaceae科和变形菌门(Proteobacteria)亚硝化单胞菌科(nitrosomonadaceae)相对丰度,增加真菌中壶菌门(Chrytridiomycota)GS13纲相对丰度,降低子囊菌门(Ascomycota)粪壳菌纲(sordariomycetes)和被孢霉门(Mortierellomycota)被孢霉纲(mortierellomycetes)相对丰度;冗余分析表明,影响细菌和真菌的主要环境因子均为土壤有机碳(SOC)和全氮(TN)。综上,在潮土中高产田地区,秸秆全量还田配合减氮30%或减磷50%具有保肥稳产的潜力。

    Abstract:

    Abstract:【Objective】The excessive application of chemical fertilizers in China’s major grain-producing areas has led to a series of problems including the reduction of fertilizer utilization rate, soil quality degradation, and increase pollution risk,【Method】A field experiment was set up in the fluvo-aquic soil area of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain to study the effects of straw returning combined with different proportions of nitrogen and phosphorus reduction on soil nutrients. Also, the effects of these amendments on crop yields, straw nutrient release, and soil microorganisms were studied to clarify the nutrient components of chemical fertilizers that can be replaced by straw returning without loss of crop yields and soil nutrients. Importantly, the microbial mechanism that promotes efficient utilization of straw nutrients and provides a basis for the implementation of chemical fertilizer reduction action was explored.【Result】The results showed that compared with conventional fertilization, a 30% reduction of nitrogen or 50% reduction of phosphorus had no significant effect on crop yield and soil nutrient content. The straw degradation rate reached 43.33% ~ 53.11% in the first season while the reduction of 30% nitrogen or 50% phosphorus could increase it by 12.40%, and the degradation rate reached 63.41% ~ 75.62% after two years. Nitrogen reduction by 100% significantly reduced the abundance, species richness and diversity of bacterial fungi, while phosphorus reduction had little effect. Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions by 30% and 50%, respectively, mainly increased the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes longimicrobiaceae and Proteobacteria nitrosomonadaceae in bacteria, increased the relative abundance of Chrytridiomycota GS13 class in fungi, and decreased the relative abundance of Ascomycota sordariomycetes and Mortierellomycota mortierellomycetes. Redundancy analysis showed that the main environmental factors affecting bacteria and fungi were soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN). 【Conclusion】In conclusion, straw returning combined with nitrogen reduction by 30% or phosphorus reduction by 50% has the potential to maintain fertilizer use efficiency and stable yield in the medium and high yield fields of fluvo-aquic soil.

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赵金花,陈林,段衍,张丛志,马东豪,张佳宝.秸秆还田配合化肥减施对潮土作物产量及土壤肥力的影响[J].土壤学报,DOI:10.11766/trxb202106230326,[待发表]
ZHAO JinHua, CHEN Lin, Duan Yan, Zhang Congzhi, Ma Donghao, ZHANG JiaBao. Effects of Straw returning instead of Chemical Fertilizer on Crop Yield and Soil Fertility in Fluvo-aquic Soil[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202106230326,[In Press]

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