稻麦轮作下施用猪粪水对作物生长及农田土壤质量的影响
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1. 安徽省水土污染治理与修复工程实验室;2. 安徽师范大学生态与环境学院,芜湖 241002;3.安徽师范大学生态与环境学院;4.江苏省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所

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国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0801403)、安徽高校协同创新项目(GXXT-2019-010)和国家自然科学基金项目(21707001)


Effect of pig slurry application on crop growth and soil quality of farmland under rice-wheat rotation system
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Affiliation:

1. Anhui Engineering Laboratory of Soil and Water Pollution Control and Remediation;2. School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, China;3.School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University;4.Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Fund Project:

the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFD0801403), the Collaborative Innovation Project of Anhui Universities of China (No. GXXT-2019-010), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21707001)

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    摘要:

    为解决猪粪水农田利用问题,确定其最佳施用量,降低可能带来的环境风险,在实验室条件下,基于自制土柱,研究了猪粪水不同比例替代化肥及猪粪水全量替代化肥下不同施用量对稻麦生产及农田土壤质量的影响,分析了稻麦株均穗数、叶绿素含量、穗和秸秆产量、穗和秸秆中氮磷含量、土壤渗滤液理化特性以及土壤氮磷、重金属含量的变化。结果表明:猪粪水50%和100%替代化肥氮均可不同程度地促进稻麦生长,提高稻麦植株产量,但处理间差异不显著;在猪粪水全量替代化肥氮条件下,当猪粪水用量为200%化肥氮时,稻、麦穗均获得最大产量;施用猪粪水提高了稻、麦穗和秸秆中氮磷含量,减缓了土壤有机质和全氮(TN)下降幅度,提高了土壤全磷含量,但过量施用猪粪水造成水稻烂根、死苗,小麦疯长,土壤渗滤液中氮磷浓度升高,污染地下水的风险增加,部分指标甚至超过《地下水质量标准(GB/T 14848-2017)》中Ⅳ类水标准;大量施用猪粪水还会造成铜(Cu)、镉(Cd)和铅(Pb)等在土壤中积累,锌(Zn)含量无明显增加。综上所述,在本实验条件下猪粪水替代化肥是可行的,建议猪粪水用量低于200%化肥时可在促进稻麦生长、培肥土壤和控制农田环境污染等方面具有较好的效果。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Pig is one of the most farmed breeds in China. In 2020, there were 406.50 million pigs in China and 41.13 million tons of pork were produced. Meanwhile, hundreds of thousands of tons of pig slurry and manure were produced during pig breeding in China. Many nutrient elements needed for crop growth are available in pig slurry, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, amino acids, trace elements, etc. Returning pig slurry to the field is one of the best ways for its utilization. To solve the problem of pig slurry application on farmland, studies are required to determine the optimal amount of pig slurry needed for the application and reduce the possible environmental risks which are associated with pig slurry application. 【Method】The experiments were carried out in a self-made soil column with a volume of 42.41 L and were designed with 7 treatments, including no fertilization (CK), 50% (50%W), 100% (100%W), 200% (200%W) and 300% (300%W) replacement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer by pig slurry, 50% replacement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer by pig slurry + 50% chemical nitrogen fertilizer(50%W+50%C), and 100% chemical nitrogen fertilizer(100%C). The average number of spikes, chlorophyll content, spike and straw yield, nitrogen and phosphorus content in spikes and straw, and the changes in physico-chemical properties of soil leachate and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals were analyzed. 【Result】The results showed that both 50% and 100% replacement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer by pig slurry could promote the growth of rice and wheat to varying degrees and increase the yield. However, the difference between treatments was not significant. The excessive application of pig slurry caused rotten roots and dead seedlings in rice, wild growth in wheat, and increased nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in soil leachate, which increased the risk of contaminating groundwater, and some indexes even exceeded the standard of Class IV water in the National Groundwater Quality Standard (GB/T 14848-2017). Also, the massive application of pig slurry caused the accumulation of Cu, Cd and Pb in the soil whereas Zn content did not increase significantly. The above results indicate that, the replacement of chemical fertilizer by pig slurry is feasible under appropriate conditions as shown in this experiment. 【Conclusion】It is suggested that the application amount of pig slurry should not be more than 200% replacement of chemical nitrogen fertilizer which have a better effect in promoting the growth of rice and wheat, fertilizing the soil and controlling environmental pollution risk of farmland.

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陈广银,曹海南,吴佩,黄艳,汪玉,刘红江,董金竹,方彩霞.稻麦轮作下施用猪粪水对作物生长及农田土壤质量的影响[J].土壤学报,,[待发表]
CHEN Guangyin, CAO Hainan, WU pei, HUANG yan, WANG yu, LIU Hongjiang, DONG Jinzhu, FANG Caixia. Effect of pig slurry application on crop growth and soil quality of farmland under rice-wheat rotation system[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,,[In Press]

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