坡耕地土壤物理结皮分层颗粒组成特征研究
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作者单位:

1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所;2.西北农林科技大学资源环境学院;3.安市水利水土保持工作总站

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基金项目:

国家自然科学基金项目(41771308)


Study on Particle Distribution Characteristics of Soil Physical Crust Profile in Sloping Farmland
Author:
Affiliation:

1.Northwest F&A University;2.College of Natural Resources and Environment,Northwest A F University;3.Xi’an Water Conservancy and Soil Conservation General Station,Xi’an;4.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所

Fund Project:

National Natural Science Foundation of China(No. 41771308)

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    摘要:

    近年来,径流和侵蚀对土壤物理结皮的影响得到广泛研究。然而,关于土壤物理结皮受侵蚀影响的定量研究较少。因此,本研究采用土壤分层处理方法,在等高耕作的径流小区中,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究坡耕地垄上(结构结皮(Cst))、洼地(含泥沙沉积结皮(Cscs))、以及模拟冲毁洼地处(无泥沙沉积结皮(Csfs))形成结皮颗粒组成特征以分析结皮的差异性。结果表明:(1)侵蚀过程中,Cst、Cscs与Csfs表层砂粒发生分散,黏粒和粉粒发生富集,且随降雨历时延长,程度逐渐增强;(2)降雨历时30 min时,自上而下,Cst砂粒减少4.61%,粉粒增加1.83%,黏粒减少1.73%;Cscs和Csfs砂粒分别增加29.35%和36.59%,粉粒增加4.34%和0.39%,黏粒减少16.30%和14.34%。(3)结皮形成过程中,Cst主导因素为雨滴打击分散作用,Cscs和Csfs在降雨初期主导因素为雨滴打击分散程度,降雨后期为泥沙沉积量。空间位置及降雨因素是导致物理结皮类型及其颗粒组成差异的重要因素。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】 The response of runoff and erosion to soil physical crust has been extensively investigated in recent decades. However, there have been few attempts to quantify the effects of the profile of soil physical crusts on erosion processes. Thus, to explore the formation mechanism of soil physical crust in microtopography, artificial simulated rainfall and stratified soil treatment method were adopted to study the distribution and characteristics of soil particle size. 【Method】Soil plot (2.0 m long × 1.0 m wide × 0.5 m high) was set to a slope of 5°, filled with soil by contour tillage (20 cm ridges and 30 cm ditches). Simulated rainfall was designed for eight durations (5, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 30 minutes) and one intensity (100 mm h-1). The samples were taken out by a cutting ring (diameter 10 cm) and placed in a stratified sampling device. The bottom of the device was designed with a spiral rising bottom bracket. By turning the nut, the soil sample rises by 1 mm after turning one circle at a time with the bottom bracket. Each tier of soil sample is stripped with a soil sampling knife. Particles of samples in each tier of soil""s physical crust and the collected mud were analyzed by Mastersizer 2000. 【Result】The results showed that: (1) During erosion, the surface sand particles of structural crust (Cst), silt-containing sedimentary crust (Cscs) and silt-free sedimentary crust (Csfs) were dispersed, while the clay and silt particles were enriched, and the degree gradually increased with the duration of rainfall. (2) When the rainfall lasted for 30 min, from top to bottom of the profile, the content of sand and clay in Cst decreased by 4.61% and 1.73%, respectively, the content of silt increased by 1.83%. The content of sand and silt in Cscs and Csfs increased by 29.35% and 36.59%, 4.34% and 0.39%, respectively. The content of clay decreased by 16.30% and 14.34%, respectively. (3) In the process of crust formation, the dominant factor of Cst was raindrop dispersion, the dominant factor of Cscs and Csfs was raindrop dispersion in the early rainfall period, and sediment deposition in the late rainfall period. 【Conclusion】 Spatial location and rainfall factors are the important factors that lead to the difference in physical crust types and particle composition.

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陈 琳,王 健,霍春平,杨 昌.坡耕地土壤物理结皮分层颗粒组成特征研究[J].土壤学报,DOI:10.11766/trxb202109110492,[待发表]
CHEN Lin, WANG Jian, HUO Chunping, YANG Chang. Study on Particle Distribution Characteristics of Soil Physical Crust Profile in Sloping Farmland[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202109110492,[In Press]

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  • 收稿日期:2021-09-11
  • 最后修改日期:2022-04-22
  • 录用日期:2022-08-18
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-08-24
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