土壤生态系统多功能性研究进展
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1.中国农业大学资源与环境学院/国家农业绿色发展研究院/植物-土壤相互作用教育部重点实验室;2.福建农林大学资源与环境学院/国际镁营养研究所

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国家自然科学基金项目(32002133)和四川省科技计划项目重点研发项目(2021YFN0026)


Research Progresses on Soil Ecosystem Multifunctionality
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1.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences/ National Academy of Agriculture Green Development;2.College of Resources and Environment/ International Magnesium Institute,Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University

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    摘要:

    健康土壤培育是耕地产能提升的先决条件,也是应对粮食安全和环境保护挑战,保障土壤可持续利用,实现农业绿色发展和构建生命共同体的基础。健康土壤培育的核心是实现土壤生态系统多功能性。在生态文明建设的新时代,土壤生态系统多功能性评价、培育过程及机制研究已成为全球土壤健康行动的焦点和前沿。本文系统梳理了土壤功能、土壤生态系统服务与土壤生态系统多功能性的概念,讨论了土壤生物多样性对多功能性的影响、土壤功能间的协同与权衡关系,总结了土壤功能评价及量化的方法,并提出了突破单一追求粮食高产目标,发展基于多功能性综合调控的农田健康土壤培育新思路。提出在不同层级上提高土壤多功能性的途径:在全国尺度调整土地利用方式及农业结构、区域尺度协调资源配置、景观尺度构建农业设施建设与景观格局、田块尺度优化田间土壤管理技术,全面提升土壤健康和多功能性。未来需要通过多学科交叉深入探索不同时空尺度的土壤多功能性形成与维持机理,与现代科技相结合,完善土壤功能管理相关政策与落地方案,强化土壤多功能性在可持续环境政策与管理中的多维作用,为山水林田湖草生命共同体协调发展和“碳达峰、碳中和”国家战略的实施提供重要支撑。

    Abstract:

    Building healthy soil is a prerequisite for the improvement of cultivated land productivity. It is fundamental for meeting the challenges of food security and environmental protection as well as realizing the agricultural green development and a community of shared future. The core of building healthy soil is to realize the soil ecosystem multifunctionality. In the new era of ecological civilization construction, research on the evaluation and cultivation of soil multifunctionality, and the underlying mechanisms have become hotspots and frontiers of global soil health initiatives. In this paper, we systematically review the concepts of soil functions, soil ecosystem services and soil ecological multifunctionality. The impact of soil biodiversity on soil multifunctionality and the synergies and trade-offs between soil functions are discussed as well. Also, the approaches to evaluating and quantifying soil functions are summarized. Finally, we put forward the pathways of healthy soil cultivation based on the integrated regulation of soil multifunctionality beyond the single pursuit of high grain yield. Different strategies to increase soil multifunctionality are proposed: adjusting the way of land use and agricultural structure at the national scale, coordinating resource allocations at a regional scale, constructing agricultural infrastructure and landscape pattern at the landscape scale, and optimizing the field soil management practices to improve soil health and multifunctionality at the field scale. It is necessary to explore the maintenance mechanism of soil multifunctionality at different temporal and spatial scales, and to combine modern technologies with relevant policies and implementation plans for functional soil management, emphasizing the multi-dimensional role of soil multifunctionality in sustainable environmental policy and management. It will provide important support for the coordinated development of mountain, water, forest, farmland, lake and grass life community and the implementation of the national strategy of carbon peak and carbon neutrality.

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李奕赞,张江周,贾吉玉,樊帆,张福锁,张俊伶.土壤生态系统多功能性研究进展[J].土壤学报,2022,59(5). DOI:10.11766/trxb202109290532 LI Yizan, ZHANG Jiangzhou, JIA Jiyu, FAN Fan, ZHANG Fusuo, ZHANG Junling. Research Progresses on Soil Ecosystem Multifunctionality[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2022,59(5).

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