1.School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology;2.Changwang School of Honors, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology;3.School of Applied Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China(No. BK20210654),the Scientific Research Start-up Foundation of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, China (No. 2021r049) and the Gaotingyao Environmental Protection Science and Technology Development Fund Project of Shanghai Tongji University, China (No. STGEF)
轮胎磨损颗粒（tire wear particles, TWPs）作为微塑料（microplastics, MPs）的重要种类之一，当下其生态风险已受到生态学家的高度重视。通常，颗粒型污染物的环境行为过程是其生态风险的重要影响因素。然而，TWPs在土壤等多孔介质中的迁移过程及影响机制至今尚未见报道。选择冷冻破碎制备的C-TWPs（冷冻破碎轮胎磨损颗粒）以及道路磨损产生的R-TWPs（滚动摩擦轮胎磨损颗粒）和S-TWPs（滑动摩擦轮胎磨损颗粒）为典型研究对象，以石英砂柱来模拟研究TWPs在土壤等环境多孔介质中的迁移行为，并探究天然有机物腐殖酸（HA）及不同pH（4、7和10）环境对以上三种类型TWPs迁移行为的影响。结果显示：HA（50 mg?L-1）能够显著增强三种类型TWPs的迁移性，并且在HA（50 mg?L-1）存在下，不同pH（4、7和10）对TWPs迁移行为影响不同，中碱性环境（pH=7/10）更有利于TWPs的迁移。主要原因在于，HA存在或（和）中碱性环境有利于（同时）增大TWPs和石英砂颗粒表面的Zeta电位值（绝对值），此时，一方面TWPs的分散性得到改善，有较小的粒径分布，另一方面增加了TWPs和石英砂颗粒间的静电排斥力，有助于TWPs的迁移。值得注意的是，HA存在和不同pH环境条件下，低温破碎制备的C-TWPs的迁移性较R-TWPs和S-TWPs强，主要由于C-TWPs制备时携带有较多的负电荷、较小的等电点和较强的疏水性，上述性质也可促使其吸附更多的HA，从而加强其电负性；而R-TWPs和S-TWPs由于粘附了道路矿物、金属盐或灰尘而减弱以上性质，表面具有较小的电负性。研究结果揭示了不同类型TWPs在自然界中地球化学迁移行为的差异性，并暗示了研究源头性质（排放方式）以确定同种材质微塑料环境行为及生态风险内在差异的必要性。
【Objective】Tire wear particles (TWPs), as one of the important types of microplastics (MPs), have received a lot of attention from ecologists for their ecological risk in recent times. Usually, the environmental behavioral processes of particulate pollutants are important influencing factors of their ecological risk. However, the migration process and influencing mechanisms of TWPs in porous media such as soil have not been reported so far. 【Method】In this paper, C-TWPs prepared by freezing crushing and R-TWPs (rolling friction) and S-TWPs (sliding friction) produced by road wear were selected as typical research objects, and quartz sand columns were used to simulate and study the migration behavior of TWPs in environmental porous media such as soil, and to investigate the effects of natural organic matter humic acid (HA) and different pH (4, 7 and 10) environments on the migration behavior of the above three types of TWPs.【Result】The results showed that HA (50 mg?L-1) significantly enhanced the mobility of the three types of TWPs, and the migration behavior of TWPs was differently affected by different pH (4, 7 and 10) environmental conditions in the presence of HA (50 mg?L-1), with the medium-alkaline environment (pH = 7/10) being more favorable for the migration of TWPs. This was mainly due to an increase in the negative zeta potentials of the surfaces of TWPs and quartz sand particles in the presence of HA and/or the medium alkaline environment (simultaneously). Also, the dispersion of TWPs was improved for smaller particle size distribution while the electrostatic repulsion between TWPs and quartz sand particles was increased, which contributed to the migration of TWPs. It is worth noting that the migration of C-TWPs prepared by low-temperature crushing was stronger than that of R-TWPs and S-TWPs in the presence of HA and under different environmental pH conditions. This was mainly attributed to the fact that C-TWPs carried a larger negative charge, smaller isoelectric point and stronger hydrophobicity, and these properties also contributed to the adsorption of more HA, thus enhancing their electronegativity. Nevertheless, R-TWPs and S-TWPs had less electronegativity on the surface due to the adhesion of road minerals, metal salts or dust that reduced the magnitude of the mentioned properties.【Conclusion】These results reveal the variability of the geochemical transport behavior of different types of TWPs in nature and suggest the necessity of studying the source properties (discharge mode) to determine the inherent differences in environmental behaviors and ecological risks of microplastics of the same material.
LI Kun, KONG Deyue, CHEN Xingyue, PENG Yonghong, XIU Xiaojia, SU Han, PAN Minyu. Influencing Mechanisms of Humic Acid and pH on the Migration Behavior of Typical Tire Wear Particles[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202206200329,[In Press]