泥沙磨蚀作用对微塑料老化破碎的影响
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1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所;2.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室

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中国科学院“西部之光”人才培养计划“西部青年学者”项目(XAB2020YN03)和陕西省引进高层次人才专项(F2020221001)资助


Effects of Sediment Abrasion on Microplastic Fragmentation
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Affiliation:

1.Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University;2.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University

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Supported by Young Scholars of the West

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    摘要:

    泥沙磨蚀作为侵蚀迁移过程中典型作用力之一,可加速微塑料老化破碎,进而影响其在土壤环境中的富集和迁移特征,但泥沙磨蚀影响微塑料老化破碎的作用机理尚不明确。以侵蚀事件频繁且微塑料污染严重的黄土高原王东沟小流域为研究区域,采集多年覆膜的玉米地土壤,对比分析风干原土、泥沙浸润静置,和含沙量为560 kg·m-3,800 kg·m-3和930 kg·m-3三种含沙量震荡磨蚀等多种处理下对微塑料的老化破碎影响,并采用激光红外成像系统分析不同处理下微塑料的丰度、类型和形态特征。研究结果表明:(1) 研究区土壤微塑料以聚氨酯 (Polyurethane,PU)、聚四氟乙烯 (Polytetrafluoroethylene,PTFE)、橡胶 (Rubber,RB) 为主,多为直径10~50 μm 的碎片状。(2) 风干原土处理中微塑料的平均面积最大 (5 234 μm2),泥沙浸润静置处理下微塑料的平均丰度最小 (2 067 n·kg-1),而泥沙磨蚀处理下微塑料的平均丰度最大 (14 400 n·kg-1),且平均面积最小 (2 868 μm2)。(3) 三种含沙量磨蚀作用下微塑料的平均丰度和面积存在显著差异,其中,平均丰度表现为:中含沙量 (18 300 n·kg-1) > 低含沙量(13 730 n·kg-1) > 高含沙量 (8 667 n·kg-1),而平均面积表现为:低含沙量 (3 932 μm2) > 中含沙量 (2 472 μm2) > 高含沙量 (2 099 μm2)。总之,本研究表明泥沙磨蚀作用可显著增加微塑料丰度,减小其面积,而微塑料的平均丰度在中含沙量磨蚀强度下达到最大值,且不同微塑料类型对泥沙磨蚀作用的敏感程度不同,为侵蚀环境下土壤微塑料的破碎迁移风险评估提供理论参考。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】As one of the typical forces in the process of erosion and migration, sediment abrasion can accelerate the fragmentation of microplastics, thereby affecting microplastic migration and redistribution within the watershed. However, how sediment abrasion affects the fragmentation behavior of microplastics is still unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sediment abrasion on the fragmentation of microplastics. 【Method】In this study, topsoil was collected from a mulched cornfield in the Wangdonggou small watershed of the Loess Plateau and the abundance, type, and morphology of microplastics were analyzed using a laser infrared imaging system after different treatments. The different treatments include air-dried original soil, sediment standstill, and sediment abrasion with three concentrations of 560 kg·m-3, 800 kg·m-3 and 930 kg·m-3. 【Result】The results showed that: (1) PU, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Rubber (RB) were the main microplastics in the study area, mostly in the form of fragments with a diameter of 10~50 μm. (2) The average area of microplastic was largest in the air-dried soil treatment (5,234 μm2) and the smallest (2,067 n·kg-1) was in the sediment standstill treatment. The microplastics after sediment abrasion treatments had the greatest average abundance (14,400 n·kg-1) and the smallest average area (2,868 μm2). (3) The average abundance and area of microplastic under the three sediment abrasion treatments were significantly different. The average abundance of microplastic followed the pattern: moderate sediment concentration (18,300 n·kg-1) > low sediment concentration (13,730 n·kg-1) > high sediment concentration (8,667 n·kg-1), whilst the average area of microplastic showed: low sediment concentration (3,932 μm2) > moderate sediment concentration (2,472 μm2) > high sediment concentration (2,099 μm2). 【Conclusion】Overall, this study demonstrates that sediment abrasion significantly increased the microplastic abundance and reduced their areas, but the average abundance of microplastic reached the maximum at the moderate sediment concentration abrasion intensity. The sensitivity of different microplastic types to sediment abrasion was different, providing guiding information for the risk assessment of soil microplastic fragmentation and migration in eroding settings.

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郝永丽,胡亚鲜,郭胜利.泥沙磨蚀作用对微塑料老化破碎的影响[J].土壤学报,2024,61(3). DOI:10.11766/trxb202208250469 HAO Yongli, HU Yaxian, GUO Shengli. Effects of Sediment Abrasion on Microplastic Fragmentation[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2024,61(3).

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  • 收稿日期:2022-08-25
  • 最后修改日期:2023-02-27
  • 录用日期:2023-06-03
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-07-18
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