绿肥介导的土壤代谢物-微生物变化缓解草莓自毒并增产提质
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西北农林科技大学资源环境学院

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秦创原科技创新基金项目(2021ZDZX-NY-0005)、陕西省自然科学基金项目(2021JQ-151)、鄂尔多斯市科技重大专项(2022EEDSKJZDZX019)和内蒙古自治区科技计划项目(2022YFHH0114)


Green Manuring-induced Changes in Soil Metabolome and Microbiome Alleviate Strawberry Autotoxicity While Improving Fruit Yield and Quality
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College of Natural Resources and Environment,Northwest A F University

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the Qinchuangyuan Scientific and Technological Innovation Funds of China (No. 2021ZDZX-NY-0005), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (No. 2021JQ-151), the Science and Technology Major Project of Ordos (2022EEDSKJZDZX019), and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (2022YFHH0114)

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    摘要:

    为探讨禾本科绿肥对设施大棚草莓产量和品质的影响及机制,于2017-2021年选取玉米、高粱和高丹草绿肥进行还田试验,设置休闲农田-草莓、玉米-草莓、高粱-草莓和高丹草-草莓4个处理,测定草莓盛果期的植株生长及生理指标、果实产量及品质、土壤化学特征、细菌群落结构及代谢组。结果表明,不同绿肥处理均促进后茬草莓生长、产量形成及品质提高。其中,玉米绿肥的效果最为明显,该处理下草莓植株干重、根表面积、根长、根平均直径、根尖数、根系活力和叶片叶绿素含量分别较休闲对照显著增加53.4%、34.4%、40.0%、21.0%、94.7%、36.0%和7.8%。同时,玉米绿肥处理下果实单株产量、总糖含量、维生素C含量和可溶性固形物含量分别显著增加44.6%、13.9%、14.4%和12.8%。此外,玉米绿肥处理下土壤pH、阳离子交换量、有机质含量、碱解氮含量、有效磷含量、速效钾含量、蔗糖酶活性、磷酸酶活性和脲酶活性均显著增加。绿肥介导了草莓根际土壤细菌群落多样性及丰富度增加,有益细菌如黄杆菌属(Flavobacterium)、贪噬菌属(Variovorax)和鞘氨醇杆菌属(Pedobacter)显著富集。绿肥对有益细菌的招募可能与之介导的土壤中糖类代谢物(如山梨糖、甘露糖和果糖)相对丰度显著增加有关,而脂类代谢物(如棕榈酸、硬脂酸和油酸)相对丰度的显著降低缓解了草莓自毒作用。因此,禾本科绿肥引起土壤特定代谢物变化通过招募有益菌并缓解自毒作用提高草莓产量和品质,以玉米为主的禾本科绿肥适用于设施大棚草莓生产。

    Abstract:

    【Objective】Green manuring is considered to be an effective strategy to achieve sustainable development in agriculture. It plays key roles in ameliorating soil fertility, improving fruit quality, and enhancing resource use efficiency. China is the world’s largest strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) producer, with strawberry cultivation taking place mainly in greenhouses. However, many field management practices, such as long-term monoculture and irrational chemical fertilization, reduce the fruit yield and quality of strawberries. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects and mechanisms of green manuring on strawberry yield and quality in greenhouses. 【Method】 Three gramineous green manures, i.e., maize (Zea mays L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum × sudangrass), were selected to carry out a field experiment from 2017 to 2021. There were four treatments: fallow farmland–strawberry (control), maize–strawberry, sorghum–strawberry, and sorghum-sudangrass–strawberry. Samples were collected in the full fruit stage of strawberries to determine plant growth and physiological parameters, in addition to fruit yield and quality attributes. Rhizosphere soil chemical properties, bacterial community structure, and metabolome were also analyzed. 【Result】 The different green manure treatments promoted plant growth and yield formation, and improved the fruit quality of subsequent strawberry crops. The most prominent effects were observed for the corn green manure treatment, which increased strawberry plant dry weight, root growth, and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value) by 53.4%, 21.0%~94.7%, and 7.8%, respectively, compared with the control treatment. Also, fruit yield per plant was markedly improved by 44.6% in the corn green manure treatment, along with the increase of nutrient contents (total sugar: by 13.9%; vitamin C: by 14.4%; and soluble solids: by 12.8%). Soil pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, and nutrient availability (N, P, and K) were also strongly increased under the corn green manure treatment, while sucrase, phosphatase, and urease activities were enhanced simultaneously. Green manuring mediated an increase in the diversity and abundance of rhizosphere soil bacterial communities, coupled with a distinct enrichment of potentially beneficial bacteria, such as Flavobacterium, Variovorax, and Pedobacter. The increase in the abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria might be related to a considerable increase in the relative abundance of carbohydrate metabolites (e.g., sorbose, mannose, and fructose) associated with green manuring. A remarkable decrease in the relative abundance of lipid metabolites (e.g., palmitic acid, stearic acid, and oleic acid) alleviated the autotoxicity of strawberries. 【Conclusion】 Gramineous green manure-mediated shifts in specific metabolites in the rhizosphere soil improved strawberry yield and quality by recruiting potentially beneficial bacteria and alleviating allelopathic autotoxicity. Maize green manure is a better option compared to sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass green manures for greenhouse strawberry production.

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郭俏,肖莉,李进,孙晨瑜,符慧晶,舒小龙,薛泉宏,来航线.绿肥介导的土壤代谢物-微生物变化缓解草莓自毒并增产提质[J].土壤学报,2024,61(4). DOI:10.11766/trxb202211050608 GUO Qiao, XIAO Li, LI Jin, SUN Chenyu, FU Huijing, SHU Xiaolong, XUE Quanhong, LAI Hangxian. Green Manuring-induced Changes in Soil Metabolome and Microbiome Alleviate Strawberry Autotoxicity While Improving Fruit Yield and Quality[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2024,61(4).

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  • 收稿日期:2022-11-05
  • 最后修改日期:2023-02-13
  • 录用日期:2023-04-18
  • 在线发布日期: 2023-04-23
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