连作根系分泌物加剧土传病害的机制和缓解措施研究进展
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1.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院/江苏省固体有机废弃物资源化高新技术研究重点实验室/江苏省有机固体废弃物资源化协同创新中心/资源节约型肥料教育部工程研究中心/国家有机类肥料工程技术研究中心;2.东北农业大学园艺园林学院

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国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFC3501501)和国家自然科学基金项目(42090064, 42277113)资助


Research Advances on Mechanisms and Preventions of Soil-borne Diseases Exacerbated by Root Exudates in Continuous Cropping Systems
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Resources and Environmental Science Nanjing Agricultural University,Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Organic Solid Waste Utilization,Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Waste Resource Utilization,Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving fertilizers,National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers;2.Department of Horticulture,Northeast Agricultural University

Fund Project:

Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2022YFC3501501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 42090064 and 42277113)

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    摘要:

    基于植物-土壤反馈理论,连作体系中的根系分泌物必然在加剧土传病害发生中起重要作用,但相关研究证据尚缺少系统总结。本文梳理了连作导致土传病害加剧的现象以及连作对典型根系分泌物组分的累积。从有利于土传病原菌由土体向根际迁移、增殖和致病(“利病”)、破坏根际有益微生物群落防线(“压益”)和毒害根系免疫系统(“自毒”)等三个方面,揭示连作根系分泌物中某些物质促进土传病原菌入侵的机制。从根系分泌物角度阐述轮作、间作、套作、伴生和嫁接等多样性种植方式缓解连作土传病害的机制。提出鉴定“利病”、“压益”和“自毒”物质以及构建对应的消减技术途径,可为土传病害绿色高效综合防控提供理论和技术支撑。

    Abstract:

    The rhizosphere microbial communities play a crucial role in assisting plants in dealing with soil-borne pathogens. When plants encounter specific soil pathogen invasions, they adapt the composition and quantity of root exudates to recruit beneficial microorganisms that can utilize these substances to resist soil pathogen infections. However, recent studies have revealed that certain root exudates can promote the occurrence of soil-borne diseases. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review and summary of existing evidence regarding the role of root exudates in continuous cropping systems, which contribute to the occurrence and outbreaks of soil-borne diseases. The paper begins by presenting observations of soil-borne diseases exacerbated by continuous cropping and the accumulation of key root exudates. Subsequently, it summarizes the potential mechanisms through which some root exudates in continuous cropping promote the invasion of soil-borne pathogens. Considering the process of soil-borne pathogens causing plant diseases in continuous cropping involves introduction (soil to the rhizosphere), colonization (rhizosphere to root surface), and infection (root surface to root interior), the substances exacerbating soil-borne pathogen invasion in each stage are categorized into the following three groups based on their functions: 1) substances that facilitate the migration, proliferation, and pathogenicity of soil-borne pathogens from soil to the rhizosphere ("enriching pathogens"); 2) substances that disrupt the defense line of beneficial microbial communities in the rhizosphere ("suppressing beneficial microbes"); and 3) substances that hinder the root immune system ("self-toxic"). Subsequently, the paper explores the mechanisms of diversified cropping systems such as rotation, grafting, row intercropping, relay intercropping, and companion planting in alleviating soil-borne diseases from the perspective of root exudates. These mechanisms include: 1) enhancing the diversity of root exudates; 2) reducing the secretion of self-toxic substances by main crops; 3) secreting root exudates that suppress pathogens; 4) promoting the formation of a protective rhizosphere microbial community to enhance plant disease resistance and 5) regulating the synthesis pathways of metabolites to reduce the production of self-toxic substances. Finally, the paper outlines several green, efficient, safe, and comprehensive control strategies for soil-borne diseases. These strategies include: 1) identification of "enriching pathogens", "suppressing beneficial microbes" and "self-toxic" root exudates; 2) application of diversified planting, rootstock grafting, biochar, and organic fertilizer to regulate root exudates, improve soil microbial community structure, enhance plant growth, and reduce diseases; and 3) establishment of biodegradation technologies for identifying, isolating, and culturing bacterial and fungal strains capable of decomposing the "enriching pathogens", "suppressing beneficial microbes" and "self-toxic" plant root exudates.

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游川,杨天杰,周新刚,王孝芳,徐阳春,沈其荣,韦中.连作根系分泌物加剧土传病害的机制和缓解措施研究进展[J].土壤学报,2024,61(5). DOI:10.11766/trxb202307180281 YOU Chuan, YANG Tianjie, ZHOU Xingang, WANG Xiaofang, XU Yangchun, SHEN Qirong, WEI Zhong. Research Advances on Mechanisms and Preventions of Soil-borne Diseases Exacerbated by Root Exudates in Continuous Cropping Systems[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica,2024,61(5).

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  • 收稿日期:2023-07-18
  • 最后修改日期:2023-10-22
  • 录用日期:2023-12-09
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-02
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