基于食物系统全链条定量的可持续氮素管理框架研究
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作者单位:

1.海南大学热带农林学院;2.中国农业大学资源与环境学院

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基金项目:

海南省面源污染重大项目(ZDKJ2021008)和三亚市农业农村局横向课题(RH2300005147)资助


Research on A Framework for Sustainable Nitrogen Management Based on Whole-chain Quantification in Food Systems
Author:
Affiliation:

1.College of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University;2.College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University

Fund Project:

Supported by the Major projects of non-point source pollution in Hainan Province, China (No. ZDKJ2021008) and the Horizontal Project of Sanya Agriculture and Rural Affairs Bureau, China (No. RH2300005147)

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    摘要:

    氮素的环境排放贯穿于整个食物链和生态链,单一农田系统的优化已无法有效控制氮素污染,亟需创新系统化的研究方法和管理手段。本研究基于氮素阶梯流动(Cascade flow)概念及全链条氮素研究框架(CAFE),以全球13个国家为研究对象,定量各地区种植、种养、食物链子系统到区域生态的氮素通量,分析各子系统氮素盈余(N surplus)和氮素利用率(NUE),剖析相邻子系统间氮素盈余增量的驱动因素,并提出全链条氮素管理优化方案。从作物生产到动物生产、初级农产品、食品生产及消费,绝大多数国家的氮素盈余不断增加而利用率逐渐下降。尽管所有国家盈余增加的趋势一致,但不同国家盈余增加的幅度差异较大,决定了每个国家改善氮素管理的优先序不同。对于中国而言,高氮素盈余主要来自种植系统,因此科学施肥技术和相关的政策仍是研究和管理的重点。对于大部分西方国家,农田以外系统对总氮素盈余贡献更大,需要重视相关系统的氮素循环利用。如荷兰需重点关注种养结构的匹配,日本需进一步减少食物浪费或增加循环,非洲国家则需要降低作物储存浪费和提高整体生产率等。对全球CAFE系统的分析发现,影响系统盈余增量的主要因素包括农田氮素投入结构、养殖密度、饲料自给率以及食品贸易与国内供需关系等,而这些因素目前尚未在全球氮素管理中得到重视。CAFE为全球氮素全链条管理提供了一致的定量研究方法,有助于跨区域的比较、经验分享和政策制定。

    Abstract:

    The environmental emission of nitrogen (N) permeates through the entire food chain and ecological system. Nitrogen-efficient technologies in crop or livestock production alone have proven ineffective in controlling N pollution, necessitating the innovation of systematic research and management methods. A new framework, CAFE, that defines four N management systems (Cropping system, Animal-crop system, Food system, and landscape Ecosystem) hierarchically, has been established to quantify N flow to a broader perspective and help understand the complex dynamics and interactions across different N cycle systems. CAFE can be applied globally for different regions, helping elucidate the differences of N management levels in various regions and providing a new perspective and methodology for global sustainable N management. Applying CAFE to 13 representative countries reveals that the N surplus in most countries increased and the NUE decreased with the increase of the level of managed system. The N surplus in the animal-crop system, food system, and regional ecosystem increased by 152% (median), 230%, and 287%, respectively, based on the cropping system. The N surplus eventually increased from 3-153 kg·hm-2 in the cropping system to 63-464 kg·hm-2 in the regional ecosystem. At the same time, NUE decreased from 55% (median) in the cropping system to 30% in the animal-crop system and 18% in the food system. N loss increases gradually from crop production to primary agricultural products, food production, and consumption. Although the trend of N surplus increase is consistent across all countries, the magnitude of the increase varies considerably among countries, determining the different priorities for improving N management in each country. For China, as the high nitrogen surplus mainly comes from the cropping system, efforts need to be made to reduce the N surplus in cropland by promoting best management practices and adjusting the structure of N inputs. For most Western countries, the system outside the cropland contributes more to the total N surplus, and attention should be given to the N recycling of related systems. For example, the Netherlands needs to focus on matching crop-livestock structure, increasing feed self-sufficiency rate, and reducing livestock density to decrease N surplus in the animal-crop system. Japan needs to further reduce food waste or increase circulation, while African countries need to reduce crop storage waste and improve overall productivity. The analysis of the global CAFE system shows that the main factors affecting the surplus increment across systems include the structure of N input in cropland, livestock density, feed self-sufficiency rate, and the relationship between food trade and domestic supply and demand. However, these factors have not yet received attention in global N management. CAFE provides a consistent quantitative method for global N whole-chain management, which is helpful for cross-regional comparison, experience sharing, and policy formulation.

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引用本文

钟于秀,巨晓棠,张卫峰,李婷玉.基于食物系统全链条定量的可持续氮素管理框架研究[J].土壤学报,DOI:10.11766/trxb202307310303,[待发表]
ZHONG Yuxiu, JU Xiaotang, ZHANG Weifeng, LI Tingyu. Research on A Framework for Sustainable Nitrogen Management Based on Whole-chain Quantification in Food Systems[J]. Acta Pedologica Sinica, DOI:10.11766/trxb202307310303,[In Press]

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  • 收稿日期:2023-07-31
  • 最后修改日期:2023-11-17
  • 录用日期:2024-01-16
  • 在线发布日期: 2024-01-31
  • 出版日期: