引用本文:钦绳武,顾益初,朱兆良.潮土肥力演变与施肥作用的长期定位试验初报[J].土壤学报,1998,35(3):367-375. DOI:10.11766/trxb199611180311
Qin Sheng-wu,Gu Yi-chu,Zhu Zhao-liang.A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON LONG-TERM STATIONARY EXPERIMENT ON FERTILITY EVOLUTION OF FLUVO-AQUIC SOIL AND THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,1998,35(3):367-375. DOI:10.11766/trxb199611180311
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潮土肥力演变与施肥作用的长期定位试验初报
钦绳武, 顾益初, 朱兆良
中国科学院南京土壤研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
1989-1994年在河南封丘潮土上,对几种主要肥料的效益,以及不同施肥条件对土壤养分供应能力的影响进行了长期定位试验。试验结果表明:潮土的生产潜力很大,贫瘠的潮土单施N肥或P肥收效甚微。只要N、P肥配合施用,其交互增产作用极显著。如一旦停止施肥,产量又将急剧下降到很低水平。在富K的潮土上,连续五年不施K肥和有机肥,对小麦产量尚不构成影响。然而耕层土壤中的速效K以每年3.8mg/kg的速度下降,已接近临界水平。定位试验中测得N、P肥五年的累计利用率远高于单季试验的结果,分别为57.2%和43.8%。在当前施肥模式和产量水平下,大多数潮土中的N、P养分和有机质都略有盈余,而K素养分则普遍亏缺。
关键词:  潮土  肥料  长期定位试验
基金项目:* 国家自然科学基金资助(批准号:39790100)
A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON LONG-TERM STATIONARY EXPERIMENT ON FERTILITY EVOLUTION OF FLUVO-AQUIC SOIL AND THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION
Qin Sheng-wu, Gu Yi-chu, Zhu Zhao-liang
Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
A long-term stationary experiment was designed to determine crop responses to several major fertilizers in fluvo-aquic soils and the effect of fertilization models on soil nutrient supply. Results showed that fluvo-aquic soil had a great production potential. But on infertile fluvo-aquic soil, crop response to single N or P fertilizer was very limited. When they were applied in combination, the effect of their interaction on crop yield became significant. Once fertilization stopped, crop yield dropped down drastically to a very low level. On K-rich fluvo-aquic soil, the practice of no application of K and organic manure for 5 years did not cause any threat to crop yield. However, the readily available K in the plowed layer decreased at a rate of 3.8 mg/kg per annum, approaching the critical level. The long-term experiment also showed that the cumulative recovery rates of N and P fertilizers in the 5 years, 57.2% and 43.8% repectively, were much higher than the results in a single cropping experiment. With the current fertilization models and crop yield level, little surpluses of N and P nutrients and organic metter exited in most fluvo-aquic soils, whereas K deficit occurred in almost all the fluvo-aquic soils.
Key words:  Fluvo-aquic soil  Fertilizer  Long-term stationary experiment