引用本文:关欣,李巧云,张凤荣,钟骏平,丁瑞兴.南疆平原干旱土的微形态特征[J].土壤学报,2003,40(5):672-677. DOI:10.11766/trxb200203220505
Guan Xin,Li Qiao-yun,Zhang Feng-rong,Zhong Jun-ping,Ding Rui-xing.MICROMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ARIDOSOLS IN THE PLAIN OF THE SOUTH OF XINJIANG[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2003,40(5):672-677. DOI:10.11766/trxb200203220505
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南疆平原干旱土的微形态特征
关欣1,2, 李巧云1,2, 张凤荣3, 钟骏平2, 丁瑞兴4
1.湖南农业大学资源环境学院, 长沙, 410128;2.新疆农业大学, 乌鲁木齐, 830052;3.中国农业大学, 北京, 100094;4.南京农业大学, 南京, 210095
摘要:
通过野外调查,应用扫描电镜和偏光显微镜等手段,结合理化分析,研究了南疆平原干旱土的微形态特征和母质成因。结果表明:南疆平原干旱土含有大量的由砂质原生矿物组成的骨骼颗粒,在这些颗粒之间填充着细粉砂质原生矿物及由隐晶质、微晶质碳酸盐和粘粒所组成的细粒物质。大部分原生矿物外形完好。同一剖面从表层向下骨骼颗粒增多,细粒物质减少。南疆平原干旱土的基本垒结类型为斑晶骨骼嵌埋状、聚积状和漂白砂型微垒结。土壤形成物主要是铁质、碳酸盐和石膏浓聚物,石灰、石膏的形态和其含量有关。碳酸盐一般以内晶霜形式存在,含量高时出现自生方解石颗粒、胶膜、凝团、凝块和凝粒;石膏以隐晶质、微晶质及针状、纤维状晶体的方式散布于细粒物质当中,石膏含量高时呈纺锤形晶体;在铁质粘化层中粘粒和粉砂明显增多,铁质浓聚物以铁染基质存在。石英砂表面超微结构特征表明:南疆平原干旱土的母质搬运距离较短,同一剖面有不同的成因或多种成因组合,各种成因的母质都受到风成作用的影响,具有风蚀、风积的特征。
关键词:  南疆平原  干旱土  微形态
基金项目:* 国家自然科学基金地区项目(49761004);国家自然科学基金重点项目(49831004);国家基础研究发展项目(G1999043505)资助
MICROMORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ARIDOSOLS IN THE PLAIN OF THE SOUTH OF XINJIANG
Guan Xin1,2, Li Qiao-yun1,2, Zhang Feng-rong3, Zhong Jun-ping2, Ding Rui-xing4
1.Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China;2.Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China;3.China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094, China;4.Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
A study on micromorphology of aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang and origin of parent materials was carried out in this paper by means of field investigation, scanning electric microscope, polarizing microscope, physical and chemical analyses. The results are as follows: Aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang consist largely of sandy primary minerals composing skeleton. Among the sandy primary minerals there are a mass of plasmas made up of fine silty primary mineral, cryptocrystalline and microcrystalline carbonate, and clay. A majority of primary minerals keep intact appearance. From the surface to the bottom horizon skeleton increases and plasma decreases. The aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang have porphyroskelic fabric, agglomeratic fabric and bleached sand fabric. pedological features of aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang are iron, carbonate and gypsum concentrations. The shape of carbonate and gypsum relates to its content. The aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang contain a great quantity of the carbonate in the shape of interflorescences, cutans, nodules, clots and autogenous calcite and accumulates an abundance of gypsum in the form of cryptocrystalline, microcrystalline, needle-shaped, spindle-shaped fibrillar crystals. In ferri-argillic horizon, clay and silt become more and iron concentrations exist in the form of the matrix stained by iron. Quartz grain surface textures indicate: parent material of aridosols in the plain of the south of Xinjiang moved a short distance, and was affected by several factors, especially wind.
Key words:  The Plain of the South of Xinjiang  Aridosols  Micromorphology