引用本文:毛霞丽,陆扣萍,何丽芝,宋照亮,徐祖祥,杨文叶,徐 进,王海龙.长期施肥对浙江稻田土壤团聚体及其有机碳分布的影响[J].土壤学报,2015,52(4):828-838. DOI:10.11766/trxb201407110351
Mao Xiali,Lu Kouping,He Lizhi,Song Zhaoliang,Xu Zuxiang,Yang Wenye,Xu Jin,Wang Hailong.Effect of long-term fertilizer application on distribution of aggregates and aggregate-associated organic carbon in paddy soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2015,52(4):828-838. DOI:10.11766/trxb201407110351
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长期施肥对浙江稻田土壤团聚体及其有机碳分布的影响
毛霞丽1, 陆扣萍1, 何丽芝1, 宋照亮1, 徐祖祥2, 杨文叶2, 徐 进3, 王海龙4
1.浙江省土壤污染修复重点实验室,浙江农林大学环境与资源学院;2.浙江省杭州市植保土肥总站;3.浙江省种植业管理局;4.浙江省土壤污染修复重点实验室,浙江农林大学资源与环境学院
摘要:
以浙江省稻田长期定位试验站为依托,研究长期不同施肥措施对土壤团聚体及其有机碳分布的影响。研究结果表明,与不施肥对照(CK)相比,栏肥与化肥配施(NPKOM)、单施栏肥(OM)、秸秆与化肥配施(NPKRS)和单施秸秆(RS)处理均显著提高了>2 mm和2 ~ 0.25 mm水稳定性大团聚体的含量和团聚体平均重量直径(p <0.05),强化了团聚体对土壤有机碳的物理保护作用。此外,长期有机无机配施(NPKOM和NPKRS)处理显著提高了各个粒级团聚体中有机碳含量,并且显著增加水稳定性大团聚体有机碳的贡献率,而长期单施化肥和单施秸秆处理并未有效增加土壤总有机碳含量。不同施肥处理下,2 ~ 0.25 mm粒级团聚体有机碳占土壤总有机碳的34.2% ~ 48.6%,是土壤有机碳的主要载体。利用傅立叶变换红外光谱(FT-IR)技术对2 ~ 0.25 mm和< 0.053 mm团聚体进行结构表征,发现长期单施有机肥或者有机无机配施下芳香族C较CK提高29.9% ~ 45.2%,较NPK处理提高22.3% ~ 36.6%,提高了土壤有机碳的芳构化。在有机碳积累方面,施用有机肥,尤其是栏肥与化肥配施,同时强化了团聚体对有机碳的物理保护以及促进了化学抗性有机碳组分的积累,是加强稻田土壤有机碳库积累的合理施肥模式。
关键词:  长期施肥措施  水稻土  团聚体  物理保护  结构表征
基金项目:浙江农林大学科研发展基金(人才引进)项目(2010FR097)与浙江省科技厅公益性技术应用研究项目(2013C32025)共同资助
Effect of long-term fertilizer application on distribution of aggregates and aggregate-associated organic carbon in paddy soil
Mao Xiali,Lu Kouping,He Lizhi,Song Zhaoliang,Xu Zuxiang,Yang Wenye,Xu Jin,Wang Hailong
1.School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang A & F University;2.The General Station of Plant Protection, Soils and Fertilizers
Abstract:
Soil samples collected from a 17-year old long-term fertilizarion field experiment in Zhejiang Province, China, were analyzed to evaluate effects of the use of chemical fertilizers and amendment of organic manure on distribution of aggregates and aggregate-associated organic carbon in paddy soil. The experiment was designed to have six treatments, including CK (control, no fertilizer applied), NPKRS (NPK fertilizers and rice straw), NPKOM (NPK fertilizers and organic manure), NPK (NPK fertilizers), RS (rice straw alone), and OM (organic manure alone). The wet-sieving method was used for evaluation of physical stability of soil aggregates and their particle-size composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize inherent chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) at the molecular level in the 2 ~ 0.25 mm and < 0.053 mm aggregates. In comparison with CK, Treatments NPKOM, OM, NPKRS and RS significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of > 2 mm and 2 ~ 0.25 mm water stable aggregates, and mean weight diameter of soil aggregates, thus enhancing the effect of macroaggregates physically protecting SOC. The SOC content of the bulk soil and all aggregate fractions, as well as the contribution of macroaggregate-associated (i.e., > 2 mm and 2 ~ 0.25 mm) SOC to total soil organic C in Treatments NPKOM and NPKRS were significantly higher than that, respectively, in CK. However, no significant difference was observed in accumulation of SOC between CK and Treatments NPK or RS. The 2 ~ 0.25 mm fraction of aggregates contained SOC, accounting for 34.16% ~ 48.6% of the total SOC in the soils in all the treatments, suggesting that 2 ~ 0.25 mm aggregates were the main carriers of SOC in the paddy soil. The FTIR spectra of the 2 ~ 0.25 mm and < 0.053 mm aggregates show that the ratios of aromatic-C to total SOC in Treatments NPKOM, OM, NPKRS and RS were 29.9% ~ 45.2% higher than that in CK, and 22.3% ~ 36.6% higher than that in Treatment NPK. The highest ratio was observed in Treatment NPKOM. The FTIR spectra also indicate that in Treatments NPKOM, OM, NPKRS and RS aliphatic-C groups increased slowly but steadily. The increases in aromatic-C and aliphatic-C were attributed mainly to the inputs of recalcitrant compounds derived from organic amendments, and/or to the reduction of H-bonded O-H hydroxyl groups of phenols induced by biochemical processes in soils treated with organic amendments. The findings of the research indicate that both enhanced physical protection of SOC by macroaggregates and increased proportion of chemically recalcitrant organic compounds contribute to carbon accumulation in the paddy soil treated with organic amendments, with the most prominent effect being observed in Treatment NPKOM. Long-term combined application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers appears to be a sustainable environment-friendly strategy to achieve both high agricultural production and soil carbon accumulation.
Key words:  Long-term fertilizer application  Paddy soil  Aggregates  Physical protection  Structural characterization