引用本文:贾 倩,廖世鹏,卜容燕,张 萌,任 涛,李小坤,丛日环,鲁剑巍.不同轮作模式下氮肥用量对土壤有机氮组分的影响[J].土壤学报,2017,54(6):1547-1558.
JIA Qian,LIAO Shipeng,BU Rongyan,ZHANG Meng,REN Tao,LI Xiaokun,CONG Rihuan,LU Jianwei.Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Fractionation of Soil Organic Nitrogen Relative to Crop Rotation Mode[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1547-1558
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不同轮作模式下氮肥用量对土壤有机氮组分的影响
贾 倩, 廖世鹏, 卜容燕, 张 萌, 任 涛, 李小坤, 丛日环, 鲁剑巍
华中农业大学资源与环境学院,农业部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室
摘要:
通过三年六季的田间定位试验,对比研究了水旱轮作(水稻/油菜)和旱地轮作(棉花/油菜)下氮肥用量对土壤有机氮含量及其组分的影响。结果表明,经过三年轮作后,周年轮作氮肥投入超过300 kg hm-2(以纯氮计,下同)的处理0~20 cm土壤全氮含量明显增加。与不施氮处理相比,周年氮肥用量为300 kg hm-2和375 kg hm-2水旱轮作处理0~20 cm土壤全氮含量增加了13.6%~23.5%,而旱地轮作处理则增加了15.0%~23.0%,土壤酸解态氮含量增加是土壤全氮变化的主要原因。两种轮作模式下土壤酸解态氮含量无显著差异,但土壤酸解态氮各组分的变化却不相同。水旱轮作中酸解铵态氮增加的比例(33.8%)低于旱地轮作(53.9%),但其酸解未知态氮含量增加的比例(36.0%)高于旱地轮作(16.6%)。综上所述,周年氮肥合理施用能明显提高土壤有机氮含量,水旱和旱地轮作下土壤酸解态氮库各组分变化差异明显。根据不同轮作模式下土壤有机氮库转化特点,优化氮肥施用对于提高作物产量和氮肥利用率具有重要意义。
关键词:  氮肥  水旱轮作  旱地轮作  全氮  土壤酸解态氮
DOI:10.11766/trxb201706230077
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41401324)和国家油菜产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-13)资助
Effects of Nitrogen Application Rate on Fractionation of Soil Organic Nitrogen Relative to Crop Rotation Mode
JIA Qian, LIAO Shipeng, BU Rongyan, ZHANG Meng, REN Tao, LI Xiaokun, CONG Rihuan, LU Jianwei
College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture
Abstract:
A 3 a field experiment, consisting of 6 croppings, was conducted to investigate effects of N fertilization on content and fractionation of soil organic N relative to N application rate and crop rotation mode, paddy/upland (rice/rapeseed, RR) rotation and upland (cotton/rapeseed, CR) rotation. Results show that after the 3 years of crop rotations cultivations, soil total N content in the 0~20 cm soil layer increased remarkably in plots more than 300 kg hm-2 in N input. Compared with CK (No N fertilization, N0-0), soil total N content increased by 13.6%~23.5% and 15.0%~23.0%, respectively, in the treatments 300 kg hm-2 and 375 kg hm-2 in N application rate under either RR or CR rotation. The increase in soil total acidolysable N content accounted for most of the increase in soil total N. Although no significant difference in soil total acidolysable N content was observed between plots under RR and CR rotations, fractionation of the soil acidolysable N varied between plots. The proportion of soil acidolysable ammonium N increased by 33.8% in the plots under RR rotation, much lower than that (53.9%) in the plots under CR rotation, but the increment of unidentified soil acidolysable N in proportion was higher in plots under RR rotation (36.0%) than that (16.6%) in the plots under CR rotation. To sum up, reasonable N fertilization may significantly increase soil organic N content. Fractionation of the soil organic N pool varies sharply between plots under RR and CR rotations. It is, therefore, of important significance to optimize N fertilization for high crop yield and high N utilization efficiency in the light of the characteristics of soil organic N transformation under different rotation systems.
Key words:  Nitrogen fertilizer  Paddy-upland rotation (RR)  Continuous upland rotation (CR)  Soil total N  Soil acidolysable nitrogen