吕 刚,王 磊,卢喜平,李叶鑫,刘雅卓.排土场不同复垦方式下砾石对饱和导水率和贮水能力的影响[J].土壤学报,2017,54(6):1414-1426. Lü Gang,WANG Lei,LU Xiping,LI Yexin,LIU Yazhuo.The Effect of Gravel on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Storage Capacity in Reclaimed Dump Relative to Reclamation Mode[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1414-1426 本文二维码信息
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排土场不同复垦方式下砾石对饱和导水率和贮水能力的影响
The Effect of Gravel on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Water Storage Capacity in Reclaimed Dump Relative to Reclamation Mode
投稿时间:2017-03-05  修订日期:2017-06-30
DOI:10.11766/trxb201705030084
中文关键词:  砾石  饱和导水率  贮水能力  露天煤矿  排土场  土地复垦
Key Words:Gravel  Saturated hydraulic conductivity  Water storage capacity  Surface coal mine  Dump  Land reclamation
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51474119)
作者单位E-mail
吕 刚 辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院 18524182288@163.com 
王 磊 辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院 420738837@qq.com 
卢喜平 四川省水利科学研究院 328235525@qq.com 
李叶鑫 辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院 liyein2008@126.com 
刘雅卓 辽宁工程技术大学环境科学与工程学院 377132087@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      露天煤矿排土场是由矿井下采出的煤矸石,露天矿剥离的表土、岩石及覆土共同组成的松散土石混合堆积体,其内部含有的砾石对土体导水性能和贮水能力有重要影响,以往关于砾石对土壤水分的影响多集中于自然土壤,缺乏对排土场、弃渣场等土石混合工程堆积体的水文-侵蚀过程研究。以海州露天煤矿排土场为研究对象,基于野外调查采样和室内定水头入渗试验,研究了排土场不同复垦方式下土体砾石分布特征及其对饱和导水率和贮水能力的影响,以期为提高矿区水土资源利用效率提供理论依据。结果表明,不同复垦方式下排土场砾石总量随土层深度呈现增加的趋势,并且土体剖面砾石总量的平均值表现为农用地最小,这可能是由频繁耕作导致,不同土层之间砾石总量无显著差异;排土场土体不同粒径砾石相对含量平均值的大小顺序为(2~10 mm)>(>20 mm)>(10~20 mm),表现为大粒径砾石在各种因素的综合作用下正逐渐变为细粒径;排土场土体饱和导水率均表现为灌木林地最高,农用地和荒草地较低;饱和导水率与各粒径砾石含量之间呈极显著线性正相关,且随着砾石粒径的增大其相关性越强;排土场土体贮水能力各指标均以灌木林地和荒草地最强,乔木林地和农用地最差,并且饱和贮水量与各粒径的砾石含量之间均存在显著或极显著的相关关系,最大滞留贮水量与各粒径的砾石含量之间均呈现显著的幂函数相关关系,最大吸持贮水量与粒径2~10 mm砾石含量之间存在显著抛物线相关关系;对于>20 mm的粒径而言,影响土壤贮水能力的砾石含量阈值为14%。
Abstract:
      【Objective】 In open mining, dump is generally a loose rock-earth accumulation body, consisting of coal gangue from mining, topsoil stripped for open mining, rocks and cover soil. The gravels contained in the dump have an important impact on soil hydraulic conductivity and water storage capacity. So far, studies on impact of gravels on soil water have focused mainly on gravels in nature soil, and little has been reported on soil hydrology and erosion of engineering accumulation bodies of mixed rock and soil like dump and dreg dumping site. 【Method】This study was laid out on the Haizhou opencast coal mine. Field investigations were conducted and samples collected for in-lab water infiltration tests and analysis of distribution characteristics of gravels in dumps reclaimed with different vegetation and its impact on saturated hydraulic conductivity and water storage capacity of the soil in an attempt to provide certain theoretical basis for improving utilization efficiency of the water and soil resources. 【Result】 Results show that the total amount of gravels in dump increased with soil depth. The mean content of total gravels in soil profile was the lowest in agricultural land, which may be explained by frequent farming practices. No significant difference was observed in total amount of gravels between different soil layers; In terms of relative mean content of gravels by particle size, the gravels in the dump exhibited an order of (2~10 mm) > (>20 mm) > (10~20 mm), which demonstrates a trend that large-sized gravels are gradually turning into fine ones as affected by a variety of factors. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity was the highest in shrub land, which was followed by agricultural land and grassland, and it was significantly, positively and linearly related to gravel content. The relationship got closer with increasing particle size of the gravels. Soil water storage capacity was the highest in shrub land and grassland and the lowest in arbor forest land and agricultural land, and it exhibited a significant or extremely significant relationship with content of gravels by particle size; Maximum water-retention capacity was in significant power function relationship with content of gravels by particle size; maximum water-holding capacity was in significant parabolic relationship with the content of gravels 2~10 mm in particle size. For gravels >20 mm in particle size, 14% was the threshold in content affecting soil water storage ability of the soil body. 【Conclusion】The distribution of gravels in dump varies with reclamation mode; Gravel content has a positive effect on saturated hydraulic conductivity of the dump; and gravel content and particle size does too on soil water storage capacity.
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