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模拟降雨条件下弃渣体边坡不同防护措施的减水减沙效益
杨 波,王文龙,郭明明,康宏亮,白 芸,李建明
1.西北农林科技大学水土保持研究所黄土高原土壤侵蚀与旱地农业国家重点实验室;2.榆林学院陕西省陕北矿区生态修复重点实验室;3.长江科学院水土保持研究所
摘要:
采用野外人工模拟降雨方法,以未防护弃渣体边坡为对照,研究了1.0、1.5 mmmin-1
关键词:  神府煤田  弃渣体  鱼鳞坑  植被措施  径流率  侵蚀速率
DOI:10.11766/trxb201705270151
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项项目(YS2016YFSF030019)和国家自然科学基金项目(40771127)
Study on Runoff and Sediment Reducing Effects of Erosion Control Measures on Slopes of Slag Dumps with Simulated Rainfall
YANG Bo1, WANG Wenlong1, GUO Mingming1, KANG Hongliang1, BAI Yun2,3, LI Jianming4
1.State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on Loess Plateau , Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F Universtiy Yangling;2.Key Laboratory of Ecological Restoration of Mining Area in Northern Shaanxi Province;3.Yulin University;4.Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute
Abstract:
【Objective】The ecological and environmental problems caused by mining, especially coal mining, have aroused worldwide concerns and attention. It is, therefore, essential to explore rapid and effective ways to rehabilitate the ecological systems in the mining areas. 【Method】Outdoor simulation of rainfall events was conducted with rainfall intensity controlled at 1.0 mm min-1-1Agropyron was formerly planted in the farmlands around the mining and transplanted on the slopes and the fish-scale pits dug temporarily. The rainfall simulator was a trough-type artificial simulator. When the nozzle is 3m above the ground, the raindrops may reach the end point speed. Plots of the artificial slopes were 3m×1 each in area and 35° in slope gradient. Before the start of the experiment, rainfall was calibrated in intensity until it reached 85% or higher in uniformity coefficient. During the rainfall events, runoff flow velocity was measured with the dye tracing method. During the first 3 minutes of rainfall, samples of runoff and sediment were gathered every minute, and after that once every 3 minutes. Sediment samples were oven-dried for weighing. 【Result】(1) Runoff leveled off in rate in 6minutes after the initiation of runoff on all the three types of slopes, regardless of type of control measure. The erosion rate on the slope of gangue tended to fluctuate, while declining and the trend was more obvious than those on the protected slopes. (2) Planting grass reduced runoff by 42.91%~51.21%, 26.28%~55.20% and 10.33% and sediment by 97.54%~97.95%, 41.87%~42.26% and7.80%, respectively, on earthy slopes, rocky slopes and slopes of gangue, while digging fish-scale pits did by 51.89%~72.72%, 22.37%~42.92% and 21.32% and by 98.41%~99.30%, 94.90%~91.84% and 39.50%, respectively. (3) On earthy slopes, digging fish-scale pits was 8.98%~21.51% and 0.46%~1.76%, respectively, higher in runoff and sediment reduction rate than planting grass, while on rocky slopesand slopes of gangue, planting grass was 3.91%~12.28% and 0.28%~3.06% higher and 10.99% and 31.70% higher, respectively. (4) On all the three types of slopes without protection measures taken, linear relationships (R2 = 0.775,p<0.01; R2 = 0.649,p<0.01; R2=0.450,p<0.05) were found between erosion rate and runoff rate, but they were weakened or fading out altered when the protection measures were taken. 【Conclusion】All findings in this study may serve as scientific basis in guiding ecological restoration of slopes of gangue in the mining area.
Key words:  Shenfu coalfield  Mining slags  Fish-scale pit  Grass planting  Runoff rate  Erosion rate