刘小媛,高佩玲,杨大明,张晴雯,张宇航.咸淡水间歇组合灌溉对盐碱耕地土壤水盐运移特性的影响[J].土壤学报,2017,54(6):1404-1413. LIU Xiaoyuan,GAO Peiling,YANG Daming,ZHANG Qingwen,ZHANG Yuhang.Effects of Intermittent Combined Irrigation on the Characteristics of Soil Water and Salt Movement in Farm Land of Salt-affected Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1404-1413 本文二维码信息
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咸淡水间歇组合灌溉对盐碱耕地土壤水盐运移特性的影响
Effects of Intermittent Combined Irrigation on the Characteristics of Soil Water and Salt Movement in Farm Land of Salt-affected Soil
投稿时间:2017-05-09  修订日期:2017-07-23
DOI:10.11766/trxb201705090207
中文关键词:  间歇组合灌溉  灌水均匀度  一维垂直积水入渗试验  脱盐率
Key Words:Intermittent combined irrigation  Irrigation uniformity  One-dimension vertical water infiltration experiments  Soil desalinization rate
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2015ZX07203-007)、国家自然科学基金项目(41402208)和山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2016EEM34)资助
作者单位E-mail
刘小媛 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院 402983329@qq.com 
高佩玲 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院 gaoplxj@163.com 
杨大明 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院 510180840@qq.com 
张晴雯 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所 402983329@qq.com 
张宇航 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院 402983329@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      为探明土壤水盐在咸淡水间歇组合灌溉条件下的运移情况,采用室内一维垂直积水入渗试验,以全淡水和微咸水直接灌溉作为对照,设置了四种间歇时间,分别为 0、30、60、120 min,三种咸淡水组合比例,分别为 2:1、1:1、1:2,进行咸淡水间歇组合灌溉。结果表明:在同一入渗时间,间歇组合灌溉的累积入渗量大于淡水灌溉,与微咸水直接灌溉差异较小;累积入渗量(I)与湿润锋运移深度(Zf)的决定系数R 2 均大于 0.99,IZf呈良好的线性关系;间歇组合灌溉的土壤含水率、灌水均匀度均远远大于淡水灌溉,但间歇组合灌溉的灌水均匀度随着淡水所占灌水定额比例的增加而减小;在 5~45 cm作物根系密集区,土壤整体脱盐,但间歇组合灌溉土壤脱盐率显著高于微咸水直接灌溉,与淡水灌溉差异较小;不同间歇时间、组合比例对土壤脱盐率的影响均达到显著性水平。
Abstract:
      【Objective】Researchers in the Salt Soil Laboratory of the USA (United States Department of Agriculture,1954) and ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers,1990) have brought forth a series of advice aiming at ameliorating salt-affected soils. Amelioration of salt-affected soils requires for the first priority removal of excessive soluble salt. However, in actual productive application, the only method available for reducing soluble salt content in the root zone of the crop is to wash the salt off the soil with fresh water. Owing to shortage of fresh water resources, the use of brackish water as replacement has aroused extensive attention. Reasonable exploitation of brackish water can not only improve crop production, but also ameliorate salt-affected soils. To explore characteristics of soil and water movement in the fields under intermittent combined irrigation (ICI), a lab experiment was conducted in an attempt to provide certain theoretical basis and technical support for reasonable use of brackish water in moderately salt-affected soil. 【Method】The experimental system consisted of soil columns and Mariotte bottles. The latter was used to supply water with a constant water head of 1.5~2 cm. The one-dimension vertical water infiltration experiment was designed to have four treatments in terms of interval in intermittent irrigation, i.e. 0 min,30 min,60 min and 120 min and five treatments in terms of combination of the irrigation water, i.e. simple fresh water (F), simple brackish water (B), 2:1 (brackish and fresh water), 1:1 (brackish and fresh water) and 1:2 (brackish and fresh water). During the experiment, wetting front movement and cumulative infiltration was monitored. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were extracted at the soil extraction port as quickly as possible to avoid the effect of water redistribution inside the cylinder, and soil water content was measured with the oven-drying method and electrical conductivity of the soil solution with a conductivity meter. 【Result】Cumulative infiltration was relatively high during the initial stage of infiltration, and dropped drastically with the experiment going on. Measurements done at the same time show that the treatments of ICI were all higher than Treatments F, but differed slightly from Treatment B in cumulative infiltration, and among the treatments of ICI, the same in quantity of water supply, cumulative infiltration increased with the ratio of brackish water. And the infiltration lasted longer when the ratio of fresh water was higher. Cumulative infiltration was in good linear relationship with wetting front movement (R 2>0.99). Determination of soil water content at the same soil depth shows that the treatments of ICI exhibited an order of ICI 2:1 (Brackish water : Fresh water) > ICI 1:1 > ICI 1:2, indicating that soil water content was positively related proportional to ratio of brackish water. Treatments ICI were all higher than Treatment F in irrigation uniformity, which was negatively related to ratio of fresh water. In the 5~45 cm crop root zone, soil desalinization rate was significantly higher in Treatments ICI than in Treatment B, and varied sharply between the treatments. The higher the proportion of fresh water, the higher the soil desalinization rate, the more favorable the salt-water environment for the crop to grow in. Significance tests of the effects of Treatments ICI on soil desalinization rate show that all the treatments reached significant levels, regardless of combination ratio and length of interval, indicating that the parameters of ICI have important on soil salt movement. 【Conclusion】Intermittent combined irrigation is more conducive than other irrigation modes to the formation of a good soil water-salt environment for crops to grow. In actual productive application, a proper combination (fresh water and brackish water ratio and interval) should be designed and used in the light of crop salt tolerance and depth of the main root system active zone, so as to minimize damage of salt stress to crops.
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