刘 杨,刘晓宇,石春林,宣守丽,孙 彬.生物炭缓解稻麦轮作区小麦渍害胁迫的作用[J].土壤学报,2017,54(6):1518-1526. LIU Yang,LIU Xiaoyu,SHI Chunlin,XUAN Shouli,SUN Bin.Effect of Biochar Alleviating Waterlogging Stress of Winter Wheat in Rice-Wheat Rotation Systems[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1518-1526 本文二维码信息
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生物炭缓解稻麦轮作区小麦渍害胁迫的作用
Effect of Biochar Alleviating Waterlogging Stress of Winter Wheat in Rice-Wheat Rotation Systems
投稿时间:2017-05-11  修订日期:2017-06-06
DOI:10.11766/trxb201705120210
中文关键词:  稻麦轮作  生物炭  渍害胁迫  土壤物理性质  土柱试验
Key Words:Rice-wheat rotation  Biochar  Waterlogging stress  Soil physical property  Soil column experiment
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201203032)、江苏省农业科学院院基金(6111647)和江苏省农业科技自主创新基金项目(CX(16)1042)资助
作者单位E-mail
刘 杨 农业信息研究所/农业部长江下游平原农业环境重点实验室江苏省农业科学院 luisyang@126.com 
刘晓宇 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室(中国科学院南京土壤研究所) xyliu@issas.ac.cn 
石春林 农业信息研究所/农业部长江下游平原农业环境重点实验室江苏省农业科学院 jaasscl@163.com 
宣守丽 农业信息研究所/农业部长江下游平原农业环境重点实验室江苏省农业科学院 shirleyxuan2008@hotmail.com 
孙 彬 农业信息研究所/农业部长江下游平原农业环境重点实验室江苏省农业科学院 915832076@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      稻麦轮作是长江中下游地区最主要的粮食生产方式,然而在该地区季风气候的背景下,小麦生长季易发生渍害胁迫,导致小麦减产甚至绝收。施用生物炭是一种有效的土壤改良方式,目前,已在长江中下游稻麦轮作区开展应用研究,但定量评估施用生物炭对长江中下游地区小麦渍害的影响研究尚未见报道。开展土柱和小区试验,研究水稻秸秆生物炭对稻麦轮作土壤和小麦生长前期的影响。结果表明,施用生物炭能显著降低稻麦轮作土壤的容重。不同深度的土壤水分动态变化也表明,施用生物炭有利于土壤水分向下迁移,可改善稻麦轮作土壤排水不畅的特点。同时,与未施用生物炭的处理相比,施用10 t hm-2生物炭能加快小麦出苗,促进小麦生长。播种后90 d的采样结果显示,施用生物炭处理下小麦株高、主根长和最后一片完全叶的叶绿素相对含量(SPAD值)均显著高于对照(p<0.05)。根系特征显示,施用生物炭处理下的小麦主根长虽然显著高于对照,但2个处理间的总根长和总根面积却无显著差异。综上,施用生物炭能显著改善稻麦轮作土壤的排水条件,促进小麦前期生长,将有助于小麦在关键生育期抵御渍害胁迫。
Abstract:
      【Objective】Crop rotation of rice and winter wheat is a common farming practice in areas of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. However, the paddy soils under such a cropping system are always heavy in texture, and tend to bring about waterlogging stress to the crop of winter wheat during its growing season under monsoon climate of winter wheat, thus inducing severe yield losses or loss of the whole crop. It is, therefore, essential to seek for a low cost and environment friendly method to alleviate yield losses caused by waterlogging stress for the sake of local food security. Biochar is an effective soil amendment and can be used to reduce soil hardening and enhance soil organic carbon sequestration. Nowadays, researches have has been carried out on application of biochar in areas under the crop rotation system in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. However, little has been reported on quantitative evaluation of the effect of biochar alleviating waterlogging stress of winter wheat in South China. 【Method】Therefore, in the present study, soil column and plot experiments were conducted to investigate effects of application of biochar derived from rice straw in paddy fields under the rotation system on growth of winter wheat at its early stage, in an attempt to obtain a preliminary evaluation of the prospects of biochar application to alleviate waterlogging stress. Effects of biochar application varying in rate on soil bulk density and soil water content at different depths were evaluated through the soil column experiment, and its effects on wheat germination and wheat growth at early stage were through the plot experiment.【Result】Results show that biochar application significantly reduced bulk density of the soil. When biochar was applied at a rate of 10 and 40 t hm-2, soil bulk density was lowered by 7.4% and 11.4%, respectively, compared with CK (the treatment with no biochar applied). Dynamics of the soil in water content varied with soil depth. biochar application facilitated soil water percolation, thus alleviating the risk of waterlogging. Specifically, in the soil applied with biochar, soil water content at 20 cm in depth dropped rapidly after a simulated rainfall event compared with that in CK. The changes in physical properties of the soil applied with biochar indicated that drainage conditions of the soil were improved, favoring growth of winter wheat. In addition, compared with CK, biochar application at a rate of 10 t hm-2 (BC) accelerated seed germination and promoted wheat growth at its early stage. Samples of winter wheat were collected on D90 after sowing for analysis of plant height, taproot length and chlorophyll relative content (SPAD value) of the new fully expanded leaf. It was found that they were all significantly higher in the treatments applied with biochar than in CK (p<0.05). The findings fully demonstrate that biochar application is beneficial to wheat growth at its early stage. However, its effects on dry matter weight of root, stem and leaf were not significant. In terms of characteristics of the root system, the plants in the biochar treatments had longer taproot than those did in CK, but did not differ much in total root length and total root area, which may be explained by the heavy texture of the soil CK. In such soils, the plant can not have its taproot go deep and for compensation have more lateral roots developed for water and nutrient absorption. 【Conclusion】On the whole, biochar application can significantly improve drainage of the soil under crop rotation and benefit growth of the wheat at its early stage. All the findings listed above demonstrate that biochar application has the potential to alleviate waterlogging stress. However, further efforts should be made to study effects of biochar application on physiology and yield of winter wheat subjected to waterlogging so as to validate the hypothesis.
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