江叶枫,叶英聪,郭 熙,饶 磊,孙 凯,李伟峰.江西省耕地土壤氮磷生态化学计量空间变异特征及其影响因素[J].土壤学报,2017,54(6):1527-1539. JIANG Yefeng,YE Yingcong,GUO Xi,RAO Lei,SUN Kai,LI Weifeng.Spatial Variability of Ecological Stoichiometry of Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Farmlands of Jiangxi Province and Its Influencing Factors[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2017,54(6):1527-1539 本文二维码信息
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江西省耕地土壤氮磷生态化学计量空间变异特征及其影响因素
Spatial Variability of Ecological Stoichiometry of Soil Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Farmlands of Jiangxi Province and Its Influencing Factors
投稿时间:2017-05-11  修订日期:2017-07-10
DOI:10.11766/trxb201705310212
中文关键词:  江西省  土壤氮磷比  生态化学计量  空间变异  氮肥施用量
Key Words:Jiangxi Province  Soil N/P ratio  Ecological stoichiometry  Spatial variability  Nitrogen fertilization rate
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41361049)、江西省自然科学基金项目(20122BAB204012)和江西省赣鄱英才“555”领军人才项目(201295) 资助
作者单位E-mail
江叶枫 江西农业大学国土资源与环境学院 821309829@qq.com 
叶英聪 江西省鄱阳湖流域农业资源与生态重点实验室 357283905@qq.com 
郭 熙 江西农业大学国土资源与环境学院 48737891@qq.com 
饶 磊 江西农业大学国土资源与环境学院 715416005@qq.com 
孙 凯 江西农业大学国土资源与环境学院 314159975@qq.com 
李伟峰 江西农业大学国土资源与环境学院 961478034@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      基于江西省2012年测土配方项目采集的16 582个耕地表层(0~20 cm)土壤样点数据,探讨省域尺度下耕地土壤氮磷生态化学计量空间变异特征及其影响因素。运用相关性分析、回归分析、方差分析和普通克里格法分析了成土母质、土壤类型、耕地利用方式、秸秆还田方式和氮肥施用量对耕地土壤氮磷生态化学计量空间变异的影响。结果表明,土壤氮磷比(N/P)在0.28~13.63之间,均值为3.38,变异系数为45.56%,呈中等程度的变异。空间分布上,高值区主要分布在海拔相对较低或鄱阳湖平原地区,低值区主要分布在九江市。成土母质、土壤类型、耕地利用方式、秸秆还田方式和氮肥施用量对江西省耕地土壤N/P空间变异影响显著(p<0.01),但影响程度有所不同。氮肥施用量能影响27.2%的土壤N/P空间变异,是引起江西省耕地土壤氮磷生态化学计量空间变异的主要因素。
Abstract:
      【Objective】Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) are two essential mineral nutrients for plant growth, and important parts of organic nutrient and soil fertility. As two restrictive elements in the terrestrial ecosystem, they play important roles in growth and development of plants, community composition of the vegetation and structure and function of the ecosystem as well. As ecosystems vary in soil microbial activity, they do in recycling and transformation of soil N and P and in decomposition and accumulation rate of organic matter, thus leading to significant variation of the ecological stoichiometry of soil N/P. Therefore, the study on spatial variability of the ecological stoichiometry of soil N/P and its influencing factors in the terrestrial ecosystem at a provincial scale is the fundamental basis of the study on changes in trophic structure, population succession and chemical elements recycling in the terrestrial ecosystem.【Method】 Based on the data of the 16 582 soil samples collected in the topsoil layer (0~20 cm) of the farmlands during implementation of the project of soil-test-based formulated fertilization in Jiangxi Province in 2012, values were assigned to the qualitative factors, i.e. parent material, soil type, farmland-use type, straw incorporation pattern and nitrogen fertilization (divided into 4 levels), and one-way variance analysis, ordinary kriging analysis and regression analysis were done of the data to quantify the ability of each factor to explain spatial variability of the ecological stoichiometry of soil N/P ratio independently.【Result】Results show as follows: ① The soil N/P ratio in the topsoil layer ranged from 0.28 to 13.63, with an average of 3.38, which indicates that the soil N/P in the cultivated land ecosystem of Jiangxi Province is at the level of medium on the lower side, and that the biological nitrogen fixation rate in the cultivated land ecosystem is at a quite high level. The coefficient of variation was 45.56%, indicating that soil N/P is moderate in variability. The nuggest/sill ratio was 60.54%, indicating that soil N and P is weak in spatial dependence, varying between structural factor and stochastic factor, and the latter played a more important role in spatial variability of soil N/P ratio. ② Soil N/P ratio was significantly related to elevation (p<0.01, r=-0.038), TN (p<0.01, r=0.681) and TP (p<0.01, r=-0.665), suggesting that elevation is a major factor affecting spatial distribution of soil N/P and that soil N/P depends mainly on TN and TP contents. ③ The spatial distribution of soil N/P ratio appeared to be quite smooth relatively, with high values over in Wuyuan of Shangrao, Jinxian of Nanchang, Xiangdong and Lianhua of Pingxiang, Fenyi of Xinyu, Lichuan of Fuzhou and Dingnan of Ganzhou. ④ The five factors, parent material, soil type, farmland-use type, straw incorporation pattern and nitrogen fertilization rate, all had significant impacts on spatial variability of soil N/P ratio (p<0.01), but varied in degree. Parent material explained 2.4% of the variability; type, sub-type and genus of the soil did 1.8%, 2.2% and 3.0%, respectively; farmland-use type did 2.2%; straw incorporation pattern did 13.0%; and N fertilization rate did 27.2%. 【Conclusion】The factor of N fertilization rate is far more capable of explaining independently spatial variability of the soil N/P ratio than the other factors, indicating that it is the main factor determining soil N/P ratio in the topsoil layer of Jiangxi Province. Therefore, in order to improve the ability of the farmland ecosystem to fix nitrogen biologically and sequestrate nitrogen, here are two suggestions. One is to devote more efforts to improving farmers’ knowledge about the use of chemical fertilizers, especially Nitrogen fertilizer, through propaganda and related technical training, vigorously extrapolating the soil-test-based formulated fertilization technology and stimulating farmers to rationalize fertilizer usage. And the other is to raise subsidies and implement preferential policies for use of organic manure and accelerate development of the green manure industry coupled with the extension of straw incorporation.
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