引用本文:成 臣,汪建军,程慧煌,罗 亢,曾勇军,石庆华,商庆银.秸秆还田与耕作方式对双季稻产量及土壤肥力质量的影响[J].土壤学报,2018,55(1):247-257. DOI:10.11766/trxb201707090275
CHENG Chen,WANG Jianjun,CHENG Huihuang,LUO Kang,ZENG Yongjun,SHI Qinghua,SHANG Qingyin.Effects of Straw Returning and Tillage System on Crop Yield and Soil Fertility Quality in Paddy Field under Double-Cropping-Rice System[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(1):247-257. DOI:10.11766/trxb201707090275
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秸秆还田与耕作方式对双季稻产量及土壤肥力质量的影响
成 臣, 汪建军, 程慧煌, 罗 亢, 曾勇军, 石庆华, 商庆银
江西农业大学双季稻现代化生产协同创新中心/作物生理生态与遗传育种教育部重点实验室/江西省作物生理生态与遗传育种重点实验室
摘要:
中国南方双季稻区秸秆资源丰富,但秸秆还田与耕作制度的最佳组合方式目前尚不明确。通过连续3年的田间定位试验(2013—2015年),研究秸秆还田条件下不同耕作方式对双季稻产量及土壤肥力质量的影响。试验处理包括翻耕与秸秆不还田(CT)、翻耕与秸秆还田(CTS)、旋耕与秸秆还田(RTS)和免耕与秸秆还田(NTS)。结果表明:与CTS处理相比,CT和NTS处理早稻平均产量分别降低3.5%和5.2%,晚稻平均产量分别降低3.6%和6.4%,其中,NTS处理晚稻产量显著低于CTS处理(p<0.05);与CTS处理相比,RTS处理早稻和晚稻平均产量分别增加6.1%和3.1%。秸秆还田条件下土壤有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)、有效磷(AP)和速效钾(AK)均呈增加的趋势,其中,2015年CTS、RTS和NTS处理SOC 、TN 、AP和AK显著高于CT处理。与CT处理相比,NTS处理土壤容重(BD)增加4.9%(p<0.05),CTS和RTS处理BD分别降低4.1%和5.2%,其中RTS处理显著低于CT处理。与CT处理相比,秸秆还田下CTS、RTS和NTS处理土壤pH分别降低1.9%、1.5%和2.5%,其中,CTS和NTS处理显著降低。CT处理土壤肥力质量呈下降的趋势,秸秆还田条件下各处理土壤肥力质量均呈提高的趋势,其中,2015年RTS处理分别高于CTS、NTS处理16.4%和80.4%。由此可见,在南方双季稻区,与常规翻耕和免耕相比,秸秆还田条件下,采用长期旋耕的方式能够进一步提高土壤肥力质量和水稻产量。
关键词:  秸秆还田  耕作方式  水稻生长发育  土壤理化性状  主成分分析
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31601833)、公益性行业(农业)科研专项项目(201303102)和江西省教育厅青年科学基金项目
Effects of Straw Returning and Tillage System on Crop Yield and Soil Fertility Quality in Paddy Field under Double-Cropping-Rice System
CHENG Chen, WANG Jianjun, CHENG Huihuang, LUO Kang, ZENG Yongjun, SHI Qinghua, SHANG Qingyin
Collaborative Innovation Center for the Modernization Production of Double Cropping Rice, Jiangxi Agricultural University / Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding/ Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education
Abstract:
【Objective】Being the main by-product of crops, crop straw is rich in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and some other nutrients. The practice of returning or incorporating straw into the field can improve soil physical and chemical properties, soil fertility quality and nutrient recycling, and hence crop yield. However, the practice has quite a number of problems waiting for solution. For example, crop straw is hard to decompose and low in utilization efficiency; produces reducing toxic substances and competes with crops for nitrogen, when decomposing; and induces incidence of crop pests and diseases. Therefore, how to optimize crop straw utilization is of great significance to guaranteeing food safety of the country and improving soil quality. Currently, straw incorporation often goes in combination with tillage, which can not only improve the soil water, fertilizer, gas and heat regimes, but also increase crop yield. It is a good effective and important measure to ensure sustainable development of the agriculture. Although a large volume of researches have recently been reported in China on effects of the combination of straw incorporation with tillage on soil fertility and crop yield of the field, most of them, except a few, focus mainly on effects of the practice in upland fields and fields under rice-wheat rotation system. The double rice-cropping system in South China is a rich resource of rice straw, but it is still unclear how to optimize the combination of straw incorporation with tillage.【Methods】A 3-year stationary field experiment was conducted from 2013 to 2015 to study effects of tillage on crop yield and soil fertility quality in combination with straw incorporation. The field experiment was designed to have four treatments, that is, conventional tillage without straw incorporation (CT), conventional tillage and straw incorporation (CTS), rotary tillage and straw incorporation (RTS) and non-tillage and straw incorporation (NTS). The straw of early rice was crushed into short sections about 5 cm in length simultaneously by the Kubota semi feeding combine harvesting the crop, and spread into the field as basal manure for late rice, and so was the straw of late rice and spread into the field as basal manure for the early rice next year. 【Results】Results show that Treatment CTS was 3.5% and 5.2% higher than Treatment CT and Treatment NTS, respectively, in mean yield of the three cropping of early rice from 2013 to 2015 and 3.6% and 6.4% higher, respectively, in mean yield of the three cropping of late rice. Especially Treatment NTS was markedly lower than Treatment CTS in late rice yield(p<0.05). But Treatment RTS was by 6.1% and 3.1% higher than Treatment CTS, respectively, in early rice yield and late rice yield. The experiment also shows that straw incorporation increased soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP) and readily available potassium (AK). In 2015, Treatments CTS, RTS and NTS were distinctly higher than Treatment CT in SOC, TN, AP and AK. Treatment NTS was 4.9% higher than Treatment CT in soil bulk density (BD) (p<0.05), while Treatment CTS and RTS was 4.1% and 5.2%, respectively, lower than Treatment CT. The declining trend was especially apparent in Treatment RTS. Straw incorporation reduced soil pH by 1.9%, 1.5% and 2.5% in Treatments CTS, RTS and NTS, respectively as compared with Treatment CT, and especially in Treatments CTS and NTS. During the three years of cultivation, Treatment CT exhibited a declining trend in soil fertility, however, in treatments with straw incorporation, soil fertility was on a rising trend. In 2015, Treatment RTS was 16.4% and 80.4% higher, respectively, than Treatment CTS and NTS.【Conclusion】 Obviously, in double rice cropping regions of South China, long-term rotary tillage is better than conventional tillage and zero-tillage in building up soil fertility and improving rice yield, when straw is returned into the field.
Key words:  Straw incorporation  Tillage method  Rice growth and development  Soil physical and chemical properties  Principal component analysis