引用本文:赵伟烨,朱 波,王智慧,曹彦强,刘天琳,罗红燕,蒋先军.石灰性紫色土硝化作用及硝化微生物对不同氮源的响应[J].土壤学报,2018,55(2):479-489.
ZHAO Weiye,ZHU Bo,WANG Zhihui,CAO Yanqiang,LIU Tianlin,LUO Hongyan,JIANG Xianjun.Response of Nitrification and Nitrifiers to Different Nitrogen Sources in an Alkaline Purple Soil[J].Acta Pedologica Sinica,2018,55(2):479-489
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石灰性紫色土硝化作用及硝化微生物对不同氮源的响应
赵伟烨1, 朱 波2, 王智慧1, 曹彦强1, 刘天琳1, 罗红燕1, 蒋先军1
1.西南大学资源环境学院;2.中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所
摘要:
土壤中发生的硝化作用是对pH高度敏感的典型过程。本文采用室内恒温培养法,结合定量PCR和高通量测序,研究石灰性紫色土硝化作用以及氨氧化细菌(Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, AOB)、氨氧化古菌(Ammonia-oxidizing archaea, AOA)、亚硝酸盐氧化细菌(Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB)的丰度与群落结构对不同氮源的响应。结果表明:不同氮源均刺激土壤硝化作用的发生,CO(NH2)2处理下的净硝化速率最大,约是CK处理的4.76倍, (NH4) 2SO4和NH4Cl处理下的净硝化速率分别为N 3.88和3.34 mg kg -1 d-1。相比于(NH4)2SO4和CO(NH2)2处理,NH4Cl处理降低了硝态氮的累积量,抑制了铵态氮的减少量。AOB amoA基因拷贝数在28 d培养过程中变化显著(p<0.05),在(NH4)2SO4和CO(NH2)2处理中呈先增长后降低趋势,在NH4Cl 处理中呈持续增长趋势;而AOA amoA基因拷贝数无显著变化(p>0.05)。说明石灰性紫色土硝化作用的主要推动者是AOB,而不是AOA。在28 d培养过程中,亚硝酸盐氧化细菌占总微生物的比例高于氨氧化细菌和古菌,意味着石灰性紫色土中可能存在全程氨氧化微生物(Comammox)。高通量测序的结果表明:石灰性紫色土中AOB的优势种群为亚硝化螺菌Nitrosospira Cluster 3,AOA的优势种群是土壤古菌Group 1.1b,NOB的优势种群是硝化螺菌 Nitrospira
关键词:  土壤氮循环  氨氧化细菌  氨氧化古菌  亚硝酸盐氧化细菌  全程氨氧化细菌
DOI:10.11766/trxb201709130312
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41671232,41271267)
Response of Nitrification and Nitrifiers to Different Nitrogen Sources in an Alkaline Purple Soil
ZHAO Weiye1, ZHU Bo2, WANG Zhihui1, CAO Yanqiang1, LIU Tianlin1, LUO Hongyan1, JIANG Xianjun1
1.College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University;2.Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
【Objective】Nitrification in soil is a highly sensitive process to pH. Responses of nitrification rates and the community structures of nitrifying microorganisms to different N sources in an alkaline purple soil were studied to elucidate the microbiological mechanisms for nitrification. 【Method】Three different N sources and the blank control were used in the 4-week incubation study. Net nitrification rate was calculated by the differences of nitrate concentrations at day 0 and 28. The amoAgene abundances for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) were measured by quantitative PCR before and after the incubation. The relative abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was analyzed by binning the sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and the amoAgene into operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) at 97% similarity level. The changes of community structures for AOA, AOB and NOB were studied by high-throughput sequencing method before and after the incubation.【Result】In the 4-week incubation study, compared with blank control (CK), soil nitrification rate was stimulated by application of all three kind of nitrogen sources: ((NH4) 2SO4, NH4Cl and CO(NH2)2). The net nitrification rate for blank control (CK) was 0.86 mg N kg-1 d -1. The highest net nitrification rate was observed for CO(NH2)2treatment (N 3.88 mg kg-1 d -1), which was more than 4-times higher than CK. The addition of NH4Cl and (NH4) 2SO4, showed similar stimulation on nitrification to CO(NH2)2application. The net nitrification for NH4Cl and (NH4) 2SO4were N 3.34 and 3.88 mg kg-1 d-1, respectively. But, NH4Cl also reduced the accumulation of nitrate and inhibited the reduction of ammonium when compared with (NH4) 2SO4, and CO(NH2)2. Along with the accumulation of nitrate, the copies of amoA gene in ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) increased significantly during the first two weeks of incubation (p<0.05). The copy numbers of bacterial amoA genes increased from 0.88×107 g-1soil and 0.85×107 g-1 soil at day-0 to 3.38×107 g-1 soil and 3.55×107 g-1 soil at the day 14 of the incubation, then decreased to 1.46×107 g-1soil and 1.69×107 g-1 soil at the day-28, for (NH4) 2SO4, and CO(NH2)2 treatments respectively. The copy numbers of bacterialamoAgenes were significantly lower in NH4Cl treatment than (NH4) 2SO4, and CO(NH2)2addition at the day 14 (p<0.05). On the other hand, the copies of amoAfor AOA did not change significantly during incubation (p>0.05). Results indicated that nitrification in alkaline purple soil was mainly driven by AOB, but not AOA. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes was performed at the whole microbial community level for different treatments and control before and after incubation. Approximately more than 30 000 high-quality 16S rRNA reads were obtained, and targeted reads from putative AOA, AOB and NOB sequences were selected for subsequent analysis. The high-throughput sequencing results further showed that the dominant nitrifying microorganisms were mainly related to Nitrospira, Nitrososmonas and Nitrosospira in the alkaline purple soil. The dominant AOB were classified into Nitrosospira Cluster 3, and the dominant AOA were affiliated with Group 1.1b. Furthermore, the relative abundance of NOB was much higher than that of AOB and AOA, which may imply the presence of Comammox in the studied alkaline purple soil.【Conclusion】Results showed that the nitrification in alkaline purple soil was stimulated by the addition of (NH4) 2SO4, NH4Cl and CO(NH2)2. But NH4Cl also showed a inhibition effect on nitrification when compared with NH4)2SO4, and CO(NH2)2 application. The nitrification process in alkaline purple soil was mainly driven by AOB, but not AOA. The evidences from the high-throughput sequencing results further indicated that the dominant population of ammonia oxidizing bacteria was classified into Nitrosospira Cluster 3 in the alkaline purple soil, and AOA was mainly the Group 1.1b. For NOB, Nitrospira was the dominated species.
Key words:  Soil nitrogen cycle  Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)  Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)  Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)  Comammox